Agriculture

The development of new therapies for human herpesvirus 6
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections are typically mild and in rare cases can result in encephalitis. A common theme among all the herpesviruses, however, is the reactivation upon immune suppression. HHV-6 commonly reactivates in transplant recipients. No therapies are approved currently for the treatment of these infections, although small studies and individual case reports have reported in...


Clinical impact of primary infection with roseoloviruses
The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus-6A -6B and -7 (HHV-6A, HHV-6B and HHV-7) cause acute infection, establish latency, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, whole virus can integrate into the host chromosome. Primary infection with HHV-6B occurs in nearly all children and was first linked to the clinical syndrome roseola infantum. However, roseolovirus infection results in a spectrum of clini...
Recent developments in animal models for human herpesvirus 6A and 6B
Progress in the identification of suitable animal models for human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B infections has been slow. Recently, new models have been established, mainly for HHV-6A, which reproduce some pathological features seen in humans. Neuroinflammatory signs were observed in infected marmosets and CD46-transgenic mice; although viral replication was not prominent, persistence of vir...


Past, present, and future perspectives on the diagnosis of Roseolovirus infections
Diagnosis of Roseolovirus infections mandates careful selection of patients, samples, and testing methods. We review advances in the field and highlight research priorities. Quantitative (q)PCR can accurately identify and distinguish between human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) species A and B. Whether screening of high-risk patients improves outcomes is unclear. Chromosomally integrated (ci)HHV-6 confo...
RNA replication errors and the evolution of virus pathogenicity and virulence
Rna viruses of plants and animals have polymerases that are error-prone and produce complex populations of related, but non-identical, genomes called quasispecies. While there are vast variations in mutation rates among these viruses, selection has optimized the exact error rate of each species to provide maximum speed of replication and amount of variation without losing the ability to replica...


Coupling of replication and assembly in flaviviruses
Flaviviruses affect hundreds of millions of people each year causing tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. This genus includes significant human pathogens such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis virus among many others. The disease caused by these viruses can range from febrile illness to hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. A deeper und...
Expanding use of multi-origin subcellular membranes by positive-strand RNA viruses during replication
Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize various subcellular membrane surfaces for replication. The subverted membranes facilitate the assembly of viral replication complexes by sequestering viral and co-opted host proteins to reach high local concentrations and protect viral RNAs from destruction by host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss that tombusviruses and nodaviruses are capable ...

Bromovirus-induced remodeling of host membranes during viral RNA replication
With its high yield, small genome, and ability to replicate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has served as a productive model to study the general features of positive-strand RNA virus infection. BMV RNA is replicated in spherules, vesicle-like invaginations of the outer perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum membrane that remain connected to the cytoplasm via a neck-l...
Oligonucleotide treatment causes flax β-glucanase up-regulation via changes in gene-body methylation
Nowadays, the challenge for biotechnology is to develop tools for agriculture and industry to provide plants characterized by productivity and quality that will satisfy the growing demand for different kinds of natural products. To meet the challenge, the generation and application of genetically modified plants is justified. However, the strong social resistance to genetically modified organis...

Coffee processing residues as a soil potassium amendment
Total coffee production in the world in 2013 was 8.7 million Mg of coffee beans. Coffee must be processed after harvest to separate beans from the husk, and the post-harvest process can generate different types of residues. Knowing that 50 % of the harvested coffee is husk, it is important to consider that these by-products can contribute to environmental problems if not disposed of properly. ...
Presence and impact of allelic variations of two alternative s-kdr mutations, M918T and M918L, in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the green-peach aphid Myzus persicae
Pyrethroids have been widely employed in order to control several agricultural pests, including Myzus persicae. Target-site resistance is the main mechanism that confers insensitivity to this class of compounds and the most common amino acid substitutions are kdr (L1014F) and s-kdr (M918T), but recently another mutation in the s-kdr locus (M918L) has been described in French and Korean populati...

Community composition, diversity and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes in differently-aged temperate forests
Soil nematode communities can provide important information about soil food web structure and function. However, how soil nematode communities and their metabolic footprints change over time in temperate forests is not well known. We examined the changes in the composition, diversity and metabolic footprints of soil nematode communities in three differently-aged (young, mid and old) forests of ...
A review of soil NO transformation: Associated processes and possible physiological significance on organisms
No emissions from soils and ecosystems are of outstanding importance for atmospheric chemistry. Here we review the current knowledge on processes involved in the formation and consumption of no in soils, the importance of no for the physiological functioning of different organisms, and for inter- and intra-species signaling and competition, e.g. in the rooting zone between microbes and plants. ...
Calcium and L-histidine effects on ascorbate-glutathione cycle components under nickel-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants
The effects of NiSO4, calcium, and L-histidine (His) on the components of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in a tomato cultivar Early Urbana Y was investigated. The activities of enzymes including catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), lipoxygenase (LOX), and phenylalan...
Dynamic QTL analysis of the Na + content, K + content, and Na + /K + ratio in rice roots during the field growth under salt stress
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is seriously impacted by global soil salinization. To determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt tolerance in rice roots, F2:3 and BC1F2:3 populations derived from a cross between the cv. Dongnong 425 of high quality and yield and the salt-tolerant cv. Changbai 10, were studied at different development stages. Two genetic linkage maps of F2:3 and BC1F2:3...