Agriculture

A new slurry pH model accounting for effects of ammonia and carbon dioxide volatilization on solution speciation
Ammonia (NH3) emissions from manure constitute a significant loss of fixed nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems and contribute to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Accurate models of such NH3 emissions will improve our understanding of the factors that control the emissions and allow appropriate mitigation actions to be identified and quantified. Although the importance of manure pH on...


Anti-malarial drug artesunate protects against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in mice
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is mediated by lung infiltration with inflammatory cells, enhanced oxidative stress, and tissue destruction. Anti-malarial drug artesunate has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions in mouse asthma models. We hypothesized that artesunate can protect against cigarette smoke-i...
Encapsulation and modified-release of thymol from oral microparticles as adjuvant or substitute to current medications
The aim of this study was to encapsulate, thymol, in natural polymers in order to obtain (i) taste masking effect and, then, enhancing its palatability and (ii) two formulations for systemic and local delivery of herbal drug as adjuvants or substitutes to current medications to prevent and treat several human and animal diseases. Microspheres based on methylcellulose or hydroxypropyl methylcell...


The feeding activity of invertebrates as a functional indicator in soil
Soils host highly diverse organism communities organized in complex food webs that strongly contribute to biological soil functions. However, it is a problem to evaluate these contributions because there are only few methods available which directly address soil functioning and ecosystem services. In fact, there are just two functional methods, which are useful for assessing quantitavely the ac...
Mucuna sanjappae Aitawade et Yadav: a new species of Mucuna with promising yield of anti-Parkinson’s drug L-DOPA
Mucuna is a well-known medicinal and food plant widely exploited for its seed pods and leaves in many tropical countries. The drug L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) extracted from seeds of Mucuna plant has been commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, a new species of Mucuna,M. sanjappae Aitawade et Yadav from north-Western Ghats of India, has been ana...


Inferring the agrobiodiversity of Vitis vinifera L. (grapevine) in ancient Greece by comparative shape analysis of archaeological and modern seeds
The origins and biogeographical history of Vitis vinifera L. (domesticated grapevine) remain largely unknown. Shape and size have long been used as criteria to distinguish between wild and domesticated grape pips. Here we have analyzed variations of seed morphology in order to provide accurate criteria for the discrimination of different groups of varieties. Diversity in present-day cultivars a...
Genetic association between herd survival and linear type traits in Holstein cows under tropical conditions
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for survival measures from birth to 60 and 72 months of age, as well as survival up to 48 and 54 months after first calving. The genetic association of these measures with 20 linear type traits and final score in Holstein cows, born between years 1990 to 2004, was also evaluated. The components of (co)variance were estimated by Baye...

In vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticide β-hexachlorocyclohexane on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells
The β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is a very stable and accumulable isomer of Lindane, a well known organochlorine pesticide. The HCHs were banned in all developed countries but to date high concern still exists for environment, animal and human health due to contaminated sites. In this study, several in vitro tests [cell viability (X), trypan blue exclusion (TBE), lactate dehydrogenase rele...
Histological characterization of downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora brassicae) resistance in Portuguese cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. tronchuda)
Downy mildew in Brassica crops is caused by the oomycete Hyaloperonospora brassicae. A histological study was conducted with the objective of characterising the first stages of the infection by various H.brassicae isolates on hosts expressing different levels of resistance in order to determine what makes the resistance mechanism present in ‘Couve Algarvia’ so effective in controlling downy...

Influence of Substrate Color on Oviposition Behavior, Egg Hatchability, and Substance of Egg Origin in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Understanding the factors that influence the choice of substrate for oviposition by the malaria mosquito is critical to efforts directed to the management of the disease and vector control measures aimed at modifications of larval habitat. The influence of black and white substrates on Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann) (Culicidae: Anophelinae) female oviposition behavior and egg-hatching rate and ...
A longitudinal assessment of periodontal disease in 52 miniature schnauzers
Periodontal disease (PD) is the most widespread oral disease in dogs and has been associated with serious systemic diseases. The disease is more prevalent in small breeds compared to large breeds and incidence increases with advancing age. In prevalence studies 84% of beagles over the age of 3 and 100% of poodles over the age of 4 were diagnosed with PD. Current knowledge of the rate of progres...

Identification of bap and icaA genes involved in biofilm formation in coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from feline conjunctiva
Bap and icaA genes are commonly known to be involved in the biofilm formation. The prevalence of bap and icaA genes and biofilm formation was determined in conjunctival isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) collected from cats. The study was conducted on 90 archival CNS isolates collected from feline conjunctiva obtained from clinically healthy cats and cats with ocular problems. B...
Characterization of the accessory protein ClpT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: oligomerization status and interaction with Hsp100 chaperones
The caseinolytic protease (Clp) is crucial for chloroplast biogenesis and proteostasis. The Arabidopsis Clp consists of two heptameric rings (P and R rings) assembled from nine distinct subunits. Hsp100 chaperones (ClpC1/2 and ClpD) are believed to dock to the axial pores of Clp and then transfer unfolded polypeptides destined to degradation. The adaptor proteins ClpT1 and 2 attach to the prote...
The Arabidopsis CURVY1 (CVY1) gene encoding a novel receptor-like protein kinase regulates cell morphogenesis, flowering time and seed production
A molecular-level understanding of the loss of CURVY1 (CVY1) gene expression (which encodes a member of the receptor-like protein kinase family) was investigated to gain insights into the mechanisms controlling cell morphogenesis and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using a reverse genetic and cell biology approaches, we demonstrate that CVY1 is a new DISTORTED gene with similar phenotypic ...
Effect of PLA/PCL/cinnamaldehyde antimicrobial packaging on physicochemical and microbial quality of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)
The effect of biobased poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) blend films with different cinnamaldehyde contents (0, 3, and 9wt%) on the physicochemical and microbial quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 4±1°C for 16 days was investigated. The low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was used as the control. The microbial levels and physicochemical properties suc...