Agriculture

Results of a US and Canada community garden survey: shared challenges in garden management amid diverse geographical and organizational contexts
Community gardens are of increasing interest to scholars, policymakers, and community organizations but there has been little systematic study of community garden management at a broad scale. This study complements case study research by revealing shared experiences of community garden management across different contexts. In partnership with the American Community Gardening Association, we dev...


Humus balances of different farm production systems in main production areas in Austria
The importance of the soil humus content is indisputable. Soil humus plays an important role in preserving soil fertility and exerts great influence on plant production and yield potential. However, proofing that management-related changes in the stock of soil organic matter (SOM) have taken place against the background of spatial and temporal variation is a difficult task. In most cases, sampl...
Artificial pores attract barley roots and can reduce artifacts of pot experiments
Soil compaction is a severe agricultural problem. It is characterized by an increased resistance to root penetration and by a decreased amount of porosity in the soil. Until today it is not clear whether crop roots are able to actively detect remaining pores in compacted soil. Moreover, little is known about the capability of roots to leave pores again if the mechanical resistance of the bulk s...


Identification and determination of 3-deoxyglucosone and glucosone in carbohydrate-rich foods
Α-Dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone are markers of both the Maillard and degradation reactions of sugars, and of certain enzymatic processes. However, quantitation of these compounds is not straightforward when more abundant carbohydrates are present in real samples. Therefore, in this work, a GC-MS method was developed to separate monosaccharides, 3-D...
Resistant Starch in Food: A Review
The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food i...


Interspecies allometric meta-analysis of the comparative pharmacokinetics of 85 drugs across veterinary and laboratory animal species
Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identifi...
Three decades of vegetation changes in peatlands isolated in an agricultural landscape
What vegetation changes occurred over three decades on two large temperate peatlands (1115 ha) isolated in an agricultural landscape and affected by a human-ignited fire?LocationSouthwest Québec, Canada. In 2012, we revisited 103 plots first sampled in 1984–85. Changes in species composition were evaluated using the Sørensen dissimilarity index, in species frequency with Chi-square goodnes...

Changes in landscape composition of differently irrigated hay meadows in an arid mountain region
Does the recent change from traditional to sprinkler irrigation result in alterations in the surrounding landscape of species-rich hay meadows in an arid Swiss mountain region? Are landscape composition and landscape heterogeneity important determinants of plant diversity in these meadows?LocationSouthwestern Switzerland. We surveyed vascular plant species in six traditionally and six sprinkler...
Climatic characterization of forest zones across administrative boundaries improves conservation planning
This paper demonstrates methods to extend standardized vegetation zone descriptions and mapped distributions across political boundaries. An extended climate niche for North America's Coastal Douglas-fir (CDF) forest zone is determined and projected to evaluate its potential distribution under a changing climate and to identify climate refugia for conservation planning. LocationPacific Northwes...

Landscape context in colonization of restored dry grasslands by target species
Although the role of landscape context, often interpreted as the available species pool, is generally assumed to be important for the restoration of disturbed sites, not many studies evaluating this role quantitatively in restored dry grasslands have been carried out. There is especially a lack of large-scale, multi-site studies. We asked how many unsown target species established spontaneously...
Cattle manure and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application effects on soil hydraulic properties and maize yield of two soils of Murewa district, Zimbabwe
This study set out to determine the effects of cattle manure and inorganic N-fertilizer application on the hydraulic properties and maize yield of a clay and sandy soil in a smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe. Four fields classified as homefields (HF: more fertile and closer to homesteads) and outfields (OF: less fertile and further from the homesteads) were selected on clay and sandy soil. T...

Effects of freeze–thaw on aggregate stability and the organic carbon and nitrogen enrichment ratios in aggregate fractions
Soil samples from the Hexi Corridor located in the arid regions of Northwestern China were collected from a site that had received fertilizer applications for 23 years. Effects of freeze–thaw on aggregate stability and the organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) enrichment ratios in water stable aggregate (WSA) fractions were investigated. In treatments combining the application of N fertilizer...
Performance, Carcass Criteria and Profitability of Broiler Chicks as Affected by Yellow Corn Replacement with Sorghum Grains and Enzymes Supplementation
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing yellow corn with sorghum with or without enzymes supplementation on performance, carcass criteria and profitability of broiler chickens. Total 90, seven-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to factorial 2x3 dietary treatments as completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replicates contain 15 birds in eac...
Performance, Caecum Bacterial Count and Ileum Histology of Broilers Fed Different Direct-Fed Microbials
An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of using three different commercial preparations of Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM) being: A mixture of Enterococcus faecium (Protexin®, DFM1), a mixture of Bacillus subtilis (Clostat®, DFM2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with its fermentation metabolites (Diamond®, DFM3) on performance, carcass characteristics, caecum bacteri...
Evaluation of Some Blood Parameters of Hajar 1 and Hajar 2 Saudi Chicken Lines Over the First 30 Weeks of Age
One thousand and three hundred chicks were used to describe body weight, hematocrit percentage (HTC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total plasma protein (TP) and albumin concentration (Alb) of two recently characterized local Saudi chicken lines Hajar 1 and 2 over the first 30 weeks of age. Three hundred and twenty male plus three hundred and five females of Hajar 1 and three hundred and forty...