Agriculture

Organic agriculture in Bhutan: potential and challenges
The Government of Bhutan, a poor rugged mountainous kingdom in the Himalayas, aims to convert the whole agricultural area to Organic Agriculture (OA) by 2020 in an effort to provoke a substantial increase of productivity and farmers income while preserving the environment. Currently less than 10 % of the agricultural area of Bhutan is in OA production. We analysed the assumptions of the Bhutane...


Expression of a nuclear-encoded psbH gene complements the plastidic RNA processing defect in the PSII mutant hcf107 in Arabidopsis thaliana
The helical-repeat RNA binding protein HCF107 is required for processing, stabilization and translation of plastid-encoded psbH mRNA. The psbH gene encodes a small, hydrophilic subunit of the PSII complex and is part of the plastidic psbB-psbT-psbH-petB-petD transcription unit. In Arabidopsis hcf107 mutants, only trace amounts of PSII proteins can be detected. Beside drastically reduced synthes...
Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan
Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritabil...


Molecular cloning and expression of glutathione S-transferases involved in propargite resistance of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)
The carmine spider mite (CSM) Tetranychus cinnabarinus has become a serious pest in China and has developed resistance to acaricide propargite as it is used to control mites worldwide including T. cinnabarinus. In this study, a resistant colony of T. cinnabarinus, PRR34 (37.78-fold resistant ratio), was established after 34 generations of propargite selection, and cross-resistance patterns of 7...
Effects of Fullerenol Nanoparticles on Acetamiprid Induced Cytoxicity and Genotoxicity in Cultured Human Lung Fibroblasts
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of water soluble fullerene (fullerenol) nanoparticles on the in vitro genotoxicity induced by the insecticide acetamiprid. Healthy human lung cells (IMR-90) were treated with fullerenol C60(OH)n (n:18-22) alone and in combination with acetamiprid for 24 hours. The micronucleus test, comet assay and γ-H2AX foci formation assays were used as g...


Spinosad resistance, esterase isoenzymes and temporal synergism in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Australia
Spinosad has been widely used in Australia to control western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) but spinosad usefulness is now compromised by resistance. Here we studied a highly spinosad resistant strain of F. occidentalis to explore if esterases had a role in spinosad resistance. Enhanced esterase activity in pressured spinosad-resistant F. occidentalis was confirmed via PAG...
Diets containing corn naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol reduces the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection
The objective of this study was to determine if deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure alters the susceptibility of rainbow trout to bacterial coldwater disease caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Rainbow trout were fed a nutritionally complete diet containing corn that was naturally contaminated with DON at a desired concentration of ...

The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of clove (Syzygium aromaticum), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils as anaesthetics during the management of clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris). For 15 min, the animals were subjected to concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 27 and 35 μL L−1 of clove oil, 17, 35, 50, 70 and 100 μL L−1 of mint oil, and 200,...
Diphasic sedimentation technique complemented by a statistical approach as a useful tool to the quantification and the determination of dynamics of eggs produced by adult monogenean parasitizing groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in captivity
Monogenean parasites create problems in confined fish, such as at aquaculture and aquariums facilities. Strategic timing of antihelminthic treatments should be based on the dynamics of monogenean egg production which requires egg quantification, but there is no standardized analytical method. The WHO diphasic sedimentation method for helminth quantification of eggs was applied in samples with t...

Comparative studies on endocrine status and gene expression of hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed high-carbohydrate diets
The effects of high-carbohydrate diets on endocrine status and gene expression of hepatic metabolism enzymes in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus) at different sampling times were investigated. Two isonitrogenous (28% crude protein) and isolipidic (5% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 40% gelatinized wheat starch (WS) or glucose (GLU). Diets...
Effect of Vitamin E or Selenium on Blood Profile and Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat
A 56-day trial to evaluate the performance characteristics, selected blood profile and oxidative stability of meat of laying turkeys was conducted using 48, thirty six weeks old turkeys which were randomly allotted to four treatments: T1 (control-the basal diet), T2 (250mg/kg vitamin E supplementation), T3 (0.03mg/kg selenium supplementation) and T4 (combination of 125mg/kg vitamin E and 0.15mg...

The demand of urban residents for the biodiversity conservation in U Minh Thuong National Park, Vietnam
The total economic value of biodiversity provides policy-makers reliable information to estimate welfare losses caused by biodiversity reductions and perform cost-benefit analysis of biodiversity conservation projects. Searching literature reviews on economic-valuation techniques, the contingent valuation (CV) method has been popularly applied to estimate the economic value of biodiversity. Thi...
First report of Gilbertella persicaria as the cause of soft rot of fruit of Syzygium cumini
A zygomycetous fungus causing fruit soft rot was found on Sygyzium cumini in Northeast Brazil. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the fungus was identified as Gilbertella persicaria. This is the first report of this fungus causing the decay of S. cumini fruit worldwide.
Reserve Bank of India Halts Rescheduling of Crop Loans in State of Andhra Pradesh
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is hesitant to approve of rescheduling of crop loans requested by the state of Andhra Pradesh government because of fairly good yield of paddy in the state in MY 2013-14.
The New Flood Control Mantra for Rice Farmers
Agronomist Dr. Joe Massey talks about his highly successful technique called ‘multiple inlet irrigation’ technique and on why more and more farmers across the globe may find it suitable for the cultivation of their rice crop. Excerpts from an exclusive interview with Oryza.com.