Agriculture

Microsatellite resources of Eucalyptus : current status and future perspectives
Eucalyptus is the premier paper pulp, short rotation plantation species grown all over the world. Genetic improvement programs integrating molecular marker tools are in progress in many parts of the globe to increase the productivity. Whole genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the eucalypts paved way for introduction of molecular genetics and breeding in this genus. Different m...


Chromosomally integrated HHV-6: impact on virus, cell and organismal biology
Hhv-6 integrates its genome into telomeres of human chromosomes. Integration can occur in somatic cells or gametes, the latter leading to individuals harboring the hhv-6 genome in every cell. This condition is transmitted to descendants and referred to as inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (iciHHV-6). Although integration can occur in different chromosomes, it invariably tak...
Uredinopsis pteridis and Desmella aneimiae , the first rust fungi (Pucciniales) reported on ferns (Pteridophyta) in Australia
Two species of rust fungi, Uredinopsis pteridis on Pteridium esculentum and Desmella aneimiae on Nephrolepis hirsutula, are reported from Australia. These are the first records of rust fungi on species of fern in Australia and the first reports of the genera Uredinopsis and Desmella in Australia.


Geographic variation in acoustic signaling in the guardian darter Etheostoma oophylax : effects of contemporary versus historical isolation
Geographical variation in acoustic signals has been demonstrated in many taxa, including freshwater fishes. Previous studies have investigated variation in acoustic signaling between populations naturally isolated into separate drainages. However, the effect of man-made habitat modifications such as dams on the evolution of communication in fishes in unexplored. We used the guardian darter, Eth...
Evaluation of facial expression in acute pain in cats
To describe the development of a facial expression tool differentiating pain-free cats from those in acute pain. Observers shown facial images from painful and pain-free cats were asked to identify if they were in pain or not. From facial images, anatomical landmarks were identified and distances between these were mapped. Selected distances underwent statistical analysis to identify features d...


Areas of China predicted to have a suitable climate for Anoplophora chinensis under a climate-warming scenario
Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an A1 class quarantine pest, native to China, Japan, and North Korea. The A. chinensis outbreak in China has severely affected the local environment and economic development. This study investigates potential areas in China with suitable climate for A. chinensis using historical climate data (1971–2000) and future climate-warming...
Otolith-based growth estimates and insights into population structure of White Seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, off the Pacific coast of North America
White Seabass (Atractoscion nobilis; Sciaenidae) comprise an important commercial resource in the USA and Mexico, but there are few growth rate estimates and its population structure remains uncertain. Growth rates were estimated based on otolith analysis of fish collected at three locations spanning 1000-km. Variations in growth rates were assessed at the population level and by reconstructing...

Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract by preparing solid dispersion via hot-melt extrusion
The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through the preparation of G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBE-SD) via hot-melt extrusion (HME). First, we prepared the GBE-SD based on a Kollidon® VA64/Kolliphor® RH40 (85:15) spray dried powder. Then physicochemical properties were investigated by differential scanning calo...
Paeoniflorin alleviates liver fibrosis by inhibiting HIF-1α through mTOR-dependent pathway
HIF-1α/mTOR signaling pathway is considered to play a crucial role in genesis and progress of tissue fibrosis. The elevation of HIF-1α and mTOR is relevant to CCl4 induced liver fibrotic rats. Paeoniflorin has been consistently shown to exhibit multiple pharmacological effects in liver disease. However, so far, no research demonstrates the relationship between paeoniflorin and HIF-1α/mTOR fi...

Effect of evodiagenine mediates photocytotoxicity on human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 through inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and activation of p38 pathways
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is a form of phototherapy, uses nontoxic light-sensitive compounds which upon exposure to selective wavelength of light become toxic to the target cells. These compounds are used clinically to treat a wide range of malignant cancers, and are recognized as a treatment strategy which is both minimally invasive and less toxic, compared with other treatments availa...
4-Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and act through AMPK and Akt dependent pathway
4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is an unusual amino acid isolated from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L). Various studies have shown that it acts as an antidiabetic agent yet its mechanism of action is not clear. We therefore investigated the effect 4-HIL on the high fructose diet fed streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and L6 myotubes. 4-HIL (50mg/kg) has improved blood lipid profile,...

Unciflavones A–F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring
Six new flavonoids, unciflavones A–F (1–6), have been isolated from medicinal plant Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR analysis including 1D NMR (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. All compounds possess exceptional structural features with an aryl substituent at the C-8 po...
Neolignan Inhibitors of Antigen-Induced Degranulation in RBL-2H3 Cells from the needles of Pinus thunbergii
The ethanolic extract of the needles of Pinus thunbergii was found to suppress antigen mediated degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. A new neolignan glycoside, named pinusthunbergiside A (1), as well as six known neolignan glycosides (2–7) were isolated from the ethanolic extract using bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D ...
Stimulation effect of wide type CFTR chloride channel by the naturally occurring flavonoid tangeretin
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. In the present study, we identified tangeretin from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride as a CFTR activator using high-throughput screening bas...
Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70–80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infectio...