Agriculture

Sensitivity of Podosphaera xanthii populations to anti-powdery mildew fungicides in Spain
Cucurbit powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii limits crop production in Spain, where disease control is largely dependent on fungicides. In previous studies, high levels of resistance to QoI and DMI fungicides were documented in south central Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of P. xanthii populations to other fungicides and to provide tools for improved di...


Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria
The emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes has great implications for malaria control in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the dynamics of insecticide susceptibility levels and the frequency of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations (L1014F) in wild Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp. n. and Anopheles gambiae Giles from the Ojoo and Bodija ar...
Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay
Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was ...


Cloning and Characterization of a GmSAGT 1 Gene Whose Transcriptional Expression Is Associated with the Level of Resistance to Soybean Downy Mildew
We have cloned a GmSAGT1 gene coding for a bi-functional enzyme of serine/alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase from a soybean variety Zaofeng5 resistant to soybean downy mildew (SDM). The GmSAGT1 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited serine glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGT) and alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) activity that produced 20-fold more glycine than that of the control. The a...
Differential Expression of Two-Component System–Related Drought-Responsive Genes in Two Contrasting Drought-Tolerant Soybean Cultivars DT51 and MTD720 Under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions
Two-component systems (TCSs) have been shown to participate in plant responses to drought. In this study, results of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of 26 selected dehydration-responsive TCS-related genes in roots and shoots of two Vietnamese soybean cultivars (DT51 and MTD720) with contrasting drought-tolerant phenotypes suggest a positive correlation between the number of drought-inducib...


Comparative Analysis of Dof Transcription Factor Family in Maize
Deoxyribonucleic acid binding with one finger (Dof) family, a kind of plant-specific transcription factor family, is involved in a variety of biological processes including signal transduction, morphogenesis, and environmental stress responses. In the present study, 46 putative Dof genes were identified from maize (Zea mays subsp. mays). The predicted ZmDof genes were non-randomly distributed w...
Feasibility of using rare earth elements (REEs) to mark and identify escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L
A series of rare earth elements (REEs) were evaluated as potential markers in scales of Atlantic salmon 1+ and 0+ smolt by addition of these elements to the feed. Chlorides of 5 REEs were tested, alone or in combination: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). The labelled-diets contained 125 or 250 mg REE kg−1 feed and were administered for up to...

Effects of condensed tannin fractions of different molecular weights from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid on in vitro methane production and rumen fermentation
Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4) production in ruminants. In this study, the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentati...
Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavour liquor by combined PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR assay
The community structure of bacteria in the aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristic, was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR (qPCR). The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermenta...

The etiology of oxidative stress in the various species of animals, a review
Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance of pro-oxidants and antioxidants leading to cell damage and tissue injury. The exhaustion of antioxidant systems is one of the reasons for the occurrence of oxidative stress, which results in avalanche production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals. High oxidative stress is common in organs and tissues with high metabolic and en...
Nanoemulsions as an effective medium for encapsulation and stabilization of Cholesterol /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex
Inclusion complex formations between β-cyclodextrin and suitable guest molecules such as cholesterol have regularly been exploited to design self-assembled structures. In the present study, an effective nanoemulsion medium (Lecithin/Tween 80/ethyl oleate/water) is selected for solubilizing and stabilizing cholesterol and cholesterol/ β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The study is further supp...

Replacement of fishmeal by fish protein hydrolysate and biofloc in the diets of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the gradual replacement of fishmeal with fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) and biofloc flour (BF) in the diets of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (2 mg). Five diets (420 g kg−1 of crude protein) were formulated, and these replaced 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T0, T10, T20, T30 and T40, respectively) of the fishmeal. A commercial diet w...
The KIT is a putative marker for differentiating spermatogonia in stallions
Putative markers have been discovered and are used to identify and separate certain lineage of spermatogonia. One marker, transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (KIT) is a marker for differentiating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in several species including mice and goats. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate reproductive stage-dependent KIT expression patterns in stallions an...
Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata)
The production of starch by plants influences their use as biofuels. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regulate starch gene expression during plant growth and development, yet the role of key enzymes such as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (E. C. 2.7.7.27 AGPase) in starch metabolism during N- and P-deficiency remains unknown. We investigated the effect of N- and P-deficiency on the expression of l...
Current status of the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic crops for cultivation in warmer climates
Climate change is resulting in heightened incidences of plant heat stress episodes. Production of transgenic crops with enhanced heat stress tolerance is a highly desired agronomic trait for the sustainability of food production in 21st century. We review the current status of our understanding of the high temperature stress response of plants. We specifically deliberate on the progress made in...