Agriculture

Characterization of bacterial populations from Murciano-Granadina goat colostrum
Bacterial populations present in goat colostrum samples were examined in order to determine the sanitary quality and the presence of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)) methods were used. The results obtained from PCR-DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacterial species belonging ...


Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores in micellar casein concentrates–effect of protein content and pH development
The spore count of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), an ingredient widely used in dairy processing, has to be reduced to increase the shelf life of intermediate and final dried products, and to guarantee the suitability for trade and export. A heat treatment of the concentrate prior to drying ensures low cell counts in the final product. However, it is not known whether spores are protected fr...
Efficacy of two formulations of pirimiphos-methyl as surface treatment against Sitophilus granarius, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium confusum
In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two pirimiphos-methyl formulations [emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and capsule suspension (CS)] as surface treatment on concrete, plywood, galvanized metal, plastic, and ceramic tile was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Pirimiphos-methyl was appl...


The interspecific and intraspecific variation of functional traits in weeds: diversified ecological strategies within arable fields
Arable weeds are a key component of the biodiversity of agroecosystems, but have faced a marked decline due to agricultural intensification. Recently, the crop edge has been considered as a potential refugia for many species. Indeed, weed species richness and abundance are higher in the crop edge than in the field margin and the field core. In this study we question whether weed functional dive...
Double cloprostenol administration during mid luteal phase of oestrous cycle does not modify the interoestrous interval in gilts
The present study was undertaken to test the effect of two vulva injections of D-cloprostenol on day 7, 9 and 10 of oestrous cycle on the duration of the interestrous interval in gilts. Following a pre-treatment oestrous cycle, 87 gilts were assigned to receive vulva injections of 75 μg D-cloprostenol at 08:00 and 14:00 h on day 7 (D7; n=30), day 9 (D9; n=29) or day 10 (D10; n=28) of their sec...


Transmission of TB in a high HIV prevalent South African community
In high tuberculosis (TB) transmission settings, little is known of the interaction of HIV-positive and HIV–negative TB disease or the impact of antiretroviral (ART) programs on transmission dynamics. M. tuberculosis isolates were collected from TB patients resident in a high TB and HIV burdened South African township. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from clinic records. Isol...
Inhibition of proprotein convertases abrogates processing of the MERS-coronavirus spike protein in infected cells but does not reduce viral infectivity
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is associated with a high-case fatality rate and the potential pandemic spread of the virus is a public health concern. The spike protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-S) facilitates viral entry into host cells, which depends on activation of MERS-S by cellular proteases. Proteolytic activation of MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells...

The Intestinal Microbiota, Microbial Translocation and Systemic Inflammation in Chronic HIV Infection
In spite of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients with chronic HIV infection have increased microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota may play a role in microbial translocation and inflammation. We profiled the fecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and measured markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in...
Inherited CARD9 deficiency in two unrelated patients with invasive Exophiala infection
Exophiala spp. are mostly responsible for skin infections. Invasive Exophiala dermatitidis disease is a rare, with 42 cases reported and frequently fatal infection. About half of these cases had no known risk factors. Similarly, invasive Exophiala spinifera disease is extremely rare, with only three cases reported, all in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Autosomal recessive CARD9 defici...

Intraspecific variation in wing colour is related to larval energy reserves in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)
The physiological basis for pigment synthesis in lepidopteran wing scales is well-studied, although less is known about the reasons why individuals of the same species vary in pigmentation. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) show subtle variations in the shade of orange on their wings and this is known to predict flight ability and mating success. The present study tests the possibility ...
Varietal Differences for Salt Tolerance during Seed Germination of Artemisia annua L. at Different Temperature Regimes
Artemisia anuua L. (Quinghao; Family Asteraceae) is a natural source of a potent anti-malarial drug artemisinin. Salt stress inhibits its growth; seed germination is the most sensitive and crucial stage of its life cycle. Sodium chloride tolerance during germination is important for establishment of plants that grow in saline habitats. The objective of this study was to determine the salt toler...

Identification of vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12 from various edible shellfish using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry
In this study, the vitamin B12 contents were analyzed in the edible portions of various shellfish (bivalves and snails). High vitamin B12 contents (30.5–53.3 μg/100 g wet weight) were detected in mussels, surf clams, bloody clams, and freshwater clams. However, scallops and abalone had extremely low vitamin B12 contents (0.1–1.1 μg/100 g wet weight) which was attributed to only the mu...
A novel point mutation in the β1-tubulin gene in asymptomatic macrothrombocytopenic Norfolk and Cairn Terriers
An asymptomatic macrothrombocytopenia, phenotypically similar to asymptomatic inherited macrothrombocytopenia in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, was described in a group of Norfolk Terriers (NT) from Northern Italy, and isolated cases were also reported in Cairn Terriers (CT). The purpose of this work was to evaluate for the presence of a genetic defect in the β1-tubulin gene in macrothrombocy...
Genetic Diversity Assessment in Amaranth Germplasm using AFLP and ISSR Markers
The genetic potential of and relationships among amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) genotypes conserved in gene banks are generally unknown. In this study, nine amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and 14 inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers were used to study genetic diversity among amaranth species. A total of 92 ISSR loci, of which 86 were polymorphic, were detected. The bands range...
Global plans of action endorsed to halt the escalating degradation of soils
Urgent action is required to improve the health of the world’s limited soil resources and stop land degradation, so as to ensure that future generations have enough supplies of food, water, energy and raw materials, government representatives and experts meeting at FAO warned today. e basis for global agricultural production.