Agriculture

Overwintering potential of the invasive leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) as a pest in greenhouse tomato production in Western Europe
The South American tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a devastating pest in tomato crops. After having spread rapidly in the Mediterranean area since its first detection in 2006, it has recently become established in greenhouses in Western Europe. It was assumed that the low temperatures commonly associated with the winters in this area would prevent this exo...


Contribution of roots and amendments to soil carbon accumulation within the soil profile in a long-term field experiment in Sweden
The contribution of different C inputs to organic carbon accumulation within the soil profile in the Ultuna long-term continuous soil organic matter experiment, established in 1956, was determined. Until 1999, C3-crops were grown at the site, but since then maize (C4) has been the only crop. The effect of a total of 10 different inorganic nitrogen and organic amendment treatments (4Mg Cha−1 y...
Soil mutualists modify priority effects on plant productivity, diversity, and composition
The importance of priority effects on community assembly is well recognized, as is, increasingly, the role of environmental context in shaping those priority effects. Distinguishing the effects of soil nutrients and soil mutualists may be critical in the context of restoration, but remains poorly understood. Additionally, we asked whether pioneer species and soil conditions influenced trade-off...


Disentangling the drivers of understorey species richness in eutrophic forest patches
What are the driving factors for the species richness of understorey herbs of isolated forest patches? How can the relative direct and indirect effects of patch area, site quality, habitat isolation and continuity be disentangled? What are the effects on different species groups?LocationEutrophic hardwood forest patches in northwestern Germany. The isolation of these patches results from extens...
Resource availability shapes fire-filtered savannas
Humid savannas can be considered fire-filtered landscapes because fire is very frequent (...


Private incentives for the emergence of co-production of offshore wind energy and mussel aquaculture
Technological solutions to increase the efficiency of spatial use can play a key role as part of the toolbox of marine spatial planning. Co-locating of multiple ocean uses can potentially increase the production and enjoyment of the ocean while limiting impacts. However, a basic precondition for co-locating or coproduction is that all parties' private incentives are aligned. We use a case study...
Tropical seaweeds for human food, their cultivation and its effect on biodiversity enrichment
As a response to growing land and freshwater shortages and climate change, the use of seaweeds as food, their cultivation at sea and its effect on biodiversity are being researched on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica. Native species, more plentiful on the Caribbean coast, were collected and pre-selected based on existing information and on criteria including ubiquity, abundan...

Effects of food type and feeding frequency on the performance of early juveniles of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): Implications for aquaculture and restocking
Sustainable aquaculture and restocking of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus will demand a reliable source of high-quality juveniles. Culture techniques for L. albus must be refined on several levels to scale up to commercial production. In this study, the effects of different natural foods (six algal foods and one animal food) and the feeding frequency (three regimes: one continuous and two inter...
Bituminous coal and sodium hydroxide-pretreated seawater stimulates Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima growth with decreased production costs
Spirulina is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium rich in protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals and vitamins. Spirulina spp. are produced in fresh water, although freshwater shortages and the high-cost of feed stock carbon limit Spirulina production. Thus, use of seawater with low-cost carbon should be evaluated. Conversely, Ca2+ and Mg2+ of natural seawater (NSW) cause milky turbidity and ...

Short periods of food restriction do not affect growth, survival or muscle development on pacu larvae
The present study evaluated the effects of different fasting periods on survival rate, growth, muscle development and compensatory growth in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) larvae. In Phase I, larvae (5days post hatching, dph) reared under an intensive system in laboratory conditions were subjected to 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8days fasting followed by 10days of regular feeding with live feed. In Phase II, ...
A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)—Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries
Mass cultivation of marine copepods as live feed requires predictable and uniform production of a standard product for the end users, the hatcheries. A previously undescribed large egg type, measuring a mean diameter of 106.5μm, was characterized and compared to normal eggs (82.3μm) from a continuous culture of Acartia tonsa. The large egg type was significantly larger than the normal eggs, a...

Sperm vitrification in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
This study aimed to evaluate the vitrification method for Litopenaeus vannamei sperm cryopreservation by using soy lecithin as extracellular cryoprotectant. For the toxicity assay three intracellular cryoprotectants were tested: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol (MeOH), at the final concentrations of 5, 10, or 30% (v/v) using sterile calcium-free saline solution (Ca-F...
Growth and physiological models for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations at high temperature
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr (33g start weight) were exposed to five different mean levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure for about five weeks in an open flow system: 0.7mmHg (1.9mgL−1; control group), 3.9mmHg (10mgL−1; low group), 6.5mmHg (17mgL−1; medium group), 9.5mmHg (25mgL−1; high group) and 12.4mmHg (33mgL−1; very high group). The water temperature was 15°C. Plasm...
A techno-economic analysis of industrial production of marine microalgae as a source of EPA and DHA-rich raw material for aquafeed: Research challenges and possibilities
The aquaculture industry needs a stable supply of feed resource materials in sufficient quantities and quality for future growth, in particular the fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (dha) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) which so far have been ensured by inclusion of fish oil. About 70% of the available fish oil is being used in aquafeeds, but the global supply of fish oil is limited and emerging ...
Economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use: Result from a prototype production facility
During the last three decades, it has been shown that copepods are a superior live feed for marine finfish larvae compared to other commonly used live feed items, such as Artemia and rotifers. The use of copepods, which have a better biochemical composition, increases survival rate, improves growth condition, reduces mal-pigmentation and allows breeding of ‘new’ marine finfish species. Howe...