Society

Causation in Personal Injury Law: The Case for a Probabilistic Approach
This paper makes the case for a wider acceptance of a probabilistic approach to causation in negligence. This acceptance would help to remove much of the incoherence which has come to afflict the English law of personal injury law. This incoherence can also be found in other common law jurisdictions (notably those of the United States, Canada and Australia). Concentrating upon recent UK case la...


Les droits du travail européens face à la crise
Si l’on analyse les évolutions récentes des droits sociaux en Europe, des tendances communes peuvent être repérées. Durant une première période, la plupart des pays analysés ont tenté de trouver des réponses rapides à la crise de l’emploi. Passée cette première période, la flexibilisation des marchés du travail a été la réponse principale à la crise. Au moment où il appa...
Innovation processes: Which process for which project?
The innovation process has traditionally been understood as a predefined sequence of phases: idea generation, selection, development, and launch/diffusion/sales. Drawing upon contingency theory, we argue that innovation process may follow a number of different paths. Our research focuses on a clear theoretical and managerial question, i.e., how does a firm organize and plan resource allocation ...


Game-based education for disaster prevention
Taiwan experiences typhoons on a yearly basis, and the accompanying heavy rain often causes flooding and damage. Local decision makers invest heavily in flood prevention measures and thus need to allocate resources wisely to minimize the destruction caused. To educate future decision makers, we developed a flood game to encourage players’ active learning by exploration. The game design is bas...
Simulating effects of signage, groups, and crowds on emergent evacuation patterns
Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants’ behaviors, egress signage system, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the building evacuation. In addition to complying with code and standards, building designers need to consider the occupants’ social characteristics and the unique layout of the buildings to design occupant-centric eg...


ADRs and underlying stock returns: empirical evidence from India
The present study empirically investigates the dynamic linkages between American Depository Receipts (ADRs) and their respective underlying stock returns of Indian stock market. Study analyzes daily data from the respective date of issue of that ADR to April 30, 2013 by applying augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test, Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality test, vector error correctio...
On the notions of indiscernibility and indeterminacy in the light of the Galois–Grothendieck theory
We analyze the notions of indiscernibility and indeterminacy in the light of the Galois theory of field extensions and the generalization to (K)-algebras proposed by Grothendieck. Grothendieck’s reformulation of Galois theory permits to recast the Galois correspondence between symmetry groups and invariants as a Galois–Grothendieck duality between (G)-spaces and the minimal observable algeb...

The pre-theoreticality of moral intuitions
Moral intuitionism, once an apparently moribund metaethical position, has seen a resurgence of interest of late. Robert Audi, a leading moral intuitionist, has argued that in order for a moral belief to qualify as intuitional, it must fulfill four criteria: it must be non-inferential, firmly held, comprehended, and pre-theoretical. This paper centers on the fourth and seemingly most problematic...
Epistemic contextualism can be stated properly
It has been argued that epistemic contextualism faces the so-called factivity problem and hence cannot be stated properly. The basic idea behind this charge is that contextualists supposedly have to say, on the one hand, that knowledge ascribing sentences like “S knows that S has hands” are true when used in ordinary contexts while, on the other hand, they are not true by the standard of th...

About the warrants of computer-based empirical knowledge
Computer simulations are widely used in current scientific practice, as a tool to obtain information about various phenomena. Scientists accordingly rely on the outputs of computer simulations to make statements about the empirical world. In that sense, simulations seem to enable scientists to acquire empirical knowledge. The aim of this paper is to assess whether computer simulations actually ...
A defense of indeterminate distinctness
On the one hand, philosophers have presented numerous apparent examples of indeterminate individuation, i.e., examples in which two things are neither determinately identical nor determinately distinct. On the other hand, some have argued against even the coherence of the very idea of indeterminate individuation. This paper defends the possibility of indeterminate individuation against Evans’...

An Exploration of CSR Initiatives Undertaken by Malaysian Hotels: Underlying Motivations from a Managerial Perspective
As one of the major sub-sectors of the tourism industry, the hotel industry's operations are inextricably tied to, reliant upon and/or largely derives from the varied environments and societies where it operates. In fact, the industry, as a whole, often impacts the very social and cultural fabrics of societies besides the surrounding natural environment and local resources. It is therefore unsu...
A Repositioning Strategy for Rural Tourism in Malaysia - Community's Perspective
The local community is an important stakeholder in rural tourism. However the rural tourism positioning strategies have been developed from the perspective of a single stakeholder tourist, and have overlooked at local community's perspective. It is important to include community's perspective because rural tourism cannot be successful without community support. There is lack of approach to high...
Reward Management and Job Satisfaction among Frontline Employees in Hotel Industry in Malaysia
Reward system is comprised of financial rewards and non financial rewards. Selecting the right rewards for the employees has always been an issue in the human resource management. Many organizations in the hotel industry are unable to identify the types of rewards which are best used to foster employees’ job satisfaction. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between reward...
Evaluating Tourism's Economic Effects: Comparison of Different Approaches
There are several models available to evaluate the economic impact of tourism. All are different from each other in terms of nature, structure, result driven, demand of the data and complexity. Most of the time it is not sure that model is appropriate for the situation where is it been applied. Numerous practices including ‘Multiplier Analysis’ and ‘Input–Output Analysis’ are still fr...