Law and Crime

Parallel modular steganography using error images
The embedding process for most of the state-of-the-art adaptive steganographic methods (not easily detectable) such as highly undetectable steganography (HUGO), edge adaptive image steganography (EA), and Adaptive ±1 Steganography in Extended Noisy Regions, is contingent upon the neighboring pixel values to prevent discovery by steganalysis methods. Hence, the calculation of the possible embed...


Generating highly nonlinear resilient Boolean functions resistance against algebraic and fast algebraic attacks
Boolean functions play an important role in the design of stream ciphers. In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm is designed to obtain Boolean functions satisfying all the needed criteria: high nonlinearity, 1-resiliency, optimal algebraic degree, optimal (or suboptimal) algebraic immunity, and good immunity to fast algebraic attacks. These functions provide a good trade-off among the c...
Determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) in whole blood and plasma by LC–MS/MS and application in authentic samples from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is the biosynthetic precursor of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis plants, and has no psychotropic effects. THCA-A can be detected in blood and urine, and several metabolites have been identified. THCA-A was also shown to be incorporated in hair by side stream smoke to a minor extent, but incorporation via blood stream or sweat seems u...


First detection of ethylphenidate in human fatalities after ethylphenidate intake
Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant drug from the group of amphetamines is, among others, established in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. It is also known to have a certain potential of abuse. In combination with alcohol, the metabolite ethylphenidate was detected in human plasma in small amounts. However, ethylphenidate is sold as “research chemical”...
The Protection of Russian Investments in the EU Energy Market: A Case in Support of Russia's Ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty
Russia’s decision not to ratify the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) can, to a great extent, be explained by Russia’s perception of this treaty as a legal instrument primarily directed at guaranteeing the security of Europe’s energy supply. As illustrated by the 2012 Arbitral Decision in Electrabel SA v Hungary, Russia’s concerns regarding how centered the ECT is on the Europ...


Genomic Signatures of Distributive Conjugal Transfer among Mycobacteria
Distributive conjugal transfer (DCT) is a newly described mechanism of lateral gene transfer (LGT) that results in a mosaic transconjugant structure, similar to products of meiosis. We have tested popular LGT detection methods on whole genome sequence (WGS) data from experimental DCT transconjugants and used the best performing methods to compare genomic signatures of DCT to those of LGT via na...
International Economic Law and Public International Law: The Past and The Future
The field of international economic law has changed dramatically from fifty years ago. There are now many lawyers around the world engaged in the field, there are courses in law schools, there is a substantial scholarly and professional literature, and international economic law has engaged the interest of public international lawyers. Moreover, there is an emerging generation of international ...

Need for a New Philosophy of International Economic Law and Adjudication
Section I explains why the human rights obligations of all UN Member States call for a new philosophy of international economic law (IEL) in order to protect rights of citizens and their democratic demand for transnational public goods (PGs) more effectively. Section II discusses five different conceptions of IEL and the need for their ‘legal integration’ so as to promote more &lsqu...
Cultural consonance, constructions of science and co-existence: a review of the integration of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in low- and middle-income countries
This review examined the determinants, patterns and imports of official recognition, and incorporation of different traditional, complementary and alternative systems of medicine (TCAM) in the public health establishment of low- and middle-income countries, with a particular focus on India. Public health systems in most countries have tended to establish health facilities centred on allopathy, ...

Microsporidian genomes harbour a diverse array of transposable elements that demonstrate an ancestry of horizontal exchange with metazoans
Microsporidian genomes are the leading models to understand the streamlining in response to a pathogenic lifestyle; they are gene-poor and often possess small genomes. In the present study, we show a feature of microsporidian genomes that contrasts this pattern of genome reduction. Specifically, genome investigations targeted at Anncaliia algerae, a human pathogen with a genome size of 23 Mb, r...
Evidence for the retention of two evolutionary distinct plastids in dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts
Dinoflagellates harboring diatom endosymbionts (termed ‘dinotoms’) have undergone a process often referred to as ‘tertiary endosymbiosis’ – the uptake of algae containing secondary plastids and integration of those plastids into the new host. In contrast to other tertiary plastids, and most secondary plastids, the endosymbiont of dinotoms is distinctly less reduced...

Sentenced to Pretrial Detention: A Study of Bail Decisions and Outcomes
Previous research on bail practices has shown that both legal factors, such as offense severity and prior criminal record, and demographic factors such as race and age, exert a strong influence on bail decisions and outcomes. Using a novel application of Knowledge Discovery statistical methods, Bayesian probability analytics, this study utilized a sample of (n = 975) cases collected by New ...
The Latent Structure of Criminal Persistence: A Taxometric Analysis of Offending Behavior from Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood in Adjudicated Male Delinquents
This study examines the latent structure of offending persistence from late adolescence through early adulthood. Self-reported involvement in drug crimes, person crimes, and property crimes between the ages of 17 and 21 years were analyzed in 1,160 male members of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012). Scores on the three indicators were subjected to longitudinal (by summing across t...
The Roberts Court and Criminal Justice: An Empirical Assessment
An empirical examination of decisions by the Roberts Court can illuminate the contemporary Supreme Court’s impact on criminal justice. The Court’s decisions and the voting patterns of its justices confirm the Roberts Court’s generally conservative reputation with respect to criminal justice. However, contrary to commentators’ assertions about a five-member conservative majority actively...
A Propensity Score Approach towards Assessing Neighborhood Risk of Parole Revocation
Previous research pertaining to parole has primarily concentrated on individual level characteristics as predictors of parole success, holding offender residency as a constant. Recently, there has been a growing realization that we need to understand how neighborhood contexts impact successful reintegration. It is difficult to evaluate the increased risk associated with neighborhood characteris...