Law and Crime

On the absence of trapped modes in locally perturbed open waveguides
This paper presents a new approach for proving that the presence of a bounded defect in a uniform open waveguide cannot produce trapped modes, contrary to the case of a closed waveguide. The originality of the proof lies in the fact that it relies on a modal decomposition. It shows in particular that the absence of trapped modes results from a strong connection between the various modal compone...


Legitimacy policing of places: the impact on crime and disorder
To examine whether or not spatially-focused legitimacy policing interventions reduce crime and disorder in the places where they are applied. Building on the NPIA-funded systematic review of legitimacy policinginterventions by Mazerolle et al et al. (2013). Legitimacy in policing: asystematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 1, we conducted a systematic review of published and unpublished l...
Application Of High Resolution pQCT Analysis For The Assessment Of A Bone Lesion: A Technical Note
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) has found new fields of application in bone medicine, but none of them concerns the forensic practice. This study exposes the potential of pQCT applied to a penetrating lesion in a vertebral body. A pQCT scanner was used for the measurements (XCT Research SA+; Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). A more precise reconstruction of th...


N-linked glycans on influenza A H3N2 hemagglutinin constrain binding of host antibodies, but shielding is limited
The extent of the role of N-linked glycans (N-glycans) in shielding influenza A hemagglutinin against host antibodies has proved controversial, with different authors making widely different assumptions. One common assumption is that N-glycans physically shield surface residues that are near to glycosylation sites, thereby preventing antibodies from binding to them. However, it is unclear, from...
Corruption and Police Legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan
Police legitimacy is an important topic of criminological research, yet it has received only sporadic study in societies where there is widespread police corruption, where the position of the police is less secure, and where social order is more tenuous. Analysing data from a probability sample survey of adults in Lahore, Pakistan, we examine the empirical links between people’s experience of...


Post-Crisis Policing and Public–Private Partnerships
The post-financial crisis ‘politics of austerity’ have prompted many police forces to explore a range of radical new budget-reducing policies, including outsourcing key service areas to the private sector on an unprecedented scale. This article analyses the largest outsourcing contract to date: the £229 million Lincolnshire Police–G4S strategic partnership. It addresses the question: to ...
The ParaDNA® Screening System — A case study in bringing forensic R&D to market
The creation of new technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field's development. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research which has grown in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for in-house forensic DNA processing and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence. However, introducing novel technologies into the forensics market must be careful...

Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing
Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300±133 (female 288±92, male 311±163) per 100cm2 hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the nu...
Estimation of legal age using calcification stages of third molars in living individuals
The increased number of adolescents and young adults with unknown or inaccurately given date of birth is a current issue in justice and legal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which third molar calcification stages assessed on panoramic X-rays could be useful as additional criteria for forensic age estimation in living individuals, focusing on the legally impo...

Population genetic data for 15 autosomal STR markers in Turkish Cypriots from Cyprus
Fifteen autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers [D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA] were analyzed in 501 unrelated, randomly selected Turkish Cypriot individuals from the island of Cyprus. While no locus duplications or null alleles were detected in these samples, eight allelic variants were observed in tota...
Robust Detection of Individual Forensic Profiles in DNA Mixtures
For a forensic identification method to be admissible in international courts, the probability of false match must be quantified. For comparison of individuals against complex mixtures using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the probability of a random man not excluded, P(RMNE) is one admissible standard. While the P(RMNE) of SNP alleles has been previously studied, it remains ...

The allele frequency of fifteen STRs among three Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations from the southwest region of mainland China
Derung, Nu and Tibetan represent three populations that reside in the southwest region of mainland China. To establish ethnic short tandem repeats (STRs) databases, 15 autosomal STRs in Derung, Nu and Tibetan were investigated. A total of 555 unrelated individuals from these three ethnic groups were genotyped using the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kit, and forensic application p...
Coding region SNP analysis to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework
The high population frequencies of three control region haplotypes contribute to the low discrimination power of the dog mtDNA control region. It also diminishes the evidential power of a match with one of these haplotypes in forensic casework. A mitochondrial genome study of 214 Belgian dogs suggested 26 polymorphic coding region sites that successfully resolved dogs with the three most freque...
Life threatening chop injuries to the head: optimising injury interpretation using three dimensional computerised tomography (3DCT) reconstruction of pre-treatment imaging
Computerised tomography (CT) is being increasingly advocated to support post mortem investigation of death but the value of using CT data already captured during emergency imaging, prior to treatment of life threatening injuries, remains under recognised and inadequately explored. We demonstrate the value of three dimensional computerised tomography (3D CT) reconstructions of such data, in inte...
The possibility of establishing causes of death on the basis of the exhumed remains of prisoners executed during the communist regime in Poland: the exhumations at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw
This study presents the results of the analysis of forensic examinations of the remains of 194 prisoners exhumed at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. In all probability, most of those buried there were judicially sentenced to death by firing squad or hanging in connection with activities of the Polish independence underground in its struggles with the postwar communist regime. Forensic medi...