Archaeology

The Status Problem of Iberian Holocen Equids: New Data from Cueva de El Mirador (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)
Equid remains are scarce and very fragmented in Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Evidence suggesting that horses were domesticated does exist, but it is often inconclusive, thus leaving the question unanswered. Today, DNA analyses have provided information about a, most likely Iberian, nucleus of horse domestication, making it crucially important to expand the database. The Holocene sequ...


Construction Features of Doel 1, a 14th-Century Cog found in Flanders
In 2000, a well-preserved, c.21 m-long shipwreck, Doel 1, was found upside-down in a silted-up creek near the river Scheldt (Belgium). An interdisciplinary research project was initiated, including 3D registration of all timbers, wood species identification, dendrochronology and archaeobotanical analysis of the caulking material. Doel 1, of which 70% is preserved, displays the construction feat...
Ancient DNA Analysis of Anatolian Goat Remains Excavated from a Urartian Castle in Eastern Turkey
In recent years, mitochondrial diversity of goats has been extensively studied, in order to shed light on domestication processes. There are limited studies on genetic diversity and demographic history of Anatolian goat breeds; and these studies have focused only on modern goats. Until today, no research has been conducted on DNA analysis of ancient Anatolian goats. In the present study, seven ...


Detailed Analysis of a Trepanation from the Late Avar Period (turn of the 7th–8th centuries – 811) and its Significance in the Anthropological Material of the Carpathian Basin
In 2008, 11 graves of a Late Avar period (turn of the 7th–8th centuries – 811) cemetery were found in the outskirts of Baracs (in the area of the so called Szitányi parcel; Co. Fejér, Hungary). The present study discusses the skeleton of a 7–9 year old child with signs of trepanation, and argues for possible interpretations based on a detailed macroscopic description. As trepanations pe...
An Approximate Bayesian Computation approach for inferring patterns of cultural evolutionary change
A wide range of theories and methods inspired from evolutionary biology have recently been used to investigate temporal changes in the frequency of archaeological material. Here we follow this research agenda and present a novel approach based on approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), which enables the evaluation of multiple competing evolutionary models formulated as computer simulations. Thi...


Reconstructing the impact of human activities in a NW Iberian Roman mining landscape for the last 2500 years
Little is known about the impact of human activities during Roman times on NW Iberian mining landscapes beyond the geomorphological transformations brought about by the use of hydraulic power for gold extraction. We present the high-resolution pollen record of La Molina mire, located in an area intensely used for gold mining (Asturias, NW Spain), combined with other proxy data from the same pea...
The Embarrassment of Riches: Rationalizing Faunal Assemblages from Large Urban Sites
Museums and other curatorial bodies face the significant challenge of storing large volumes of material recovered from decades of archaeological excavation, amongst which are very large collections of animal bones. As stores fill up there is pressure to reconsider curation policies, to the point of refusing further deposition and disposal of existing material. Faced with this situation York Arc...

Characterization and comparison of the copper-base metallurgy of the Harappan sites at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India
Copper-base metallic artifacts excavated from two Indus settlements at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India, were examined for their microstructure and chemical composition. The two sites were approximately contemporaneous and belong to the mature Harappan phase of the Indus Civilization, spanning the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. The microstructural data revealed that almos...
Hunting on the margins of medieval West African states: a preliminary study of the zooarchaeological record at Diouboye, Senegal
Leather, animal skins and ivory were important components of the economies of medieval West African societies. Despite the prominent role of hunters in diverse oral histories throughout the region, little is known about the actual production of animal products, in particular those derived from wild animals. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the zooarchaeological record of Diouboy...

Enamel microstructure and mastication in Pyrotherium romeroi (Pyrotheria, Mammalia)
The South American ungulate Pyrotheriumromeroi provides a new enamel type, “Pyrotherium-enamel”. It is characterized by vertically oriented bands that differ from vertical Hunter–Schreger-bands in being wider and having a specific internal feather-like structure. The enamel is formed exclusively by prisms with keyhole-shaped cross sections. This prism type occurs in Proboscidea, Taeniodon...
A new multistage construction chronology for the Great Serpent Mound, USA
Effigy mounds occur across the midcontinent of North America but their cultural purposes and construction chronologies are rarely known and often controversial. Determining the age and construction history of monuments is important to relate religious symbolism, scientific knowledge, and cultural continuity to groups within a region. Based mainly on circumstantial evidence, researchers have lon...

Investigating inherent differences in isotopic composition between human bone and enamel bioapatite: implications for reconstructing residential histories
In archaeological research, human bone and enamel bioapatite isotopic compositions are commonly used to reconstruct residential and dietary histories. In doing so, enamel and bone bioapatite are implicitly treated as isotopically equivalent, but recent research has determined that carbonate–carbon and –oxygen isotopic compositions of these two tissues may be offset by several per mil. Here,...
Mobility and migration in the Early Neolithic of the Mediterranean: questions of motivation and mechanism
The spread of the Neolithic throughout Mediterranean Europe involved, at least to some degree, the physical movement of farmers westwards. This mobility has often been attributed to demographic or climatic factors, and long-term environmental changes of this type surely provided the backdrop against which subsistence practices and behavioral strategies developed. However, changing environmental...
Trampling versus cut marks on chemically altered surfaces: an experimental approach and archaeological application at the Barranc de la Boella site (la Canonja, Tarragona, Spain)
Several studies have attempted to identify diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between evidence of trampling and cut marks, two common modifications at archaeological sites. These studies have brought to light, with relative precision, the features that identify and differentiate the two types of modifications. However, few studies differentiate these modifications after they have been affec...
Functional analysis of prismatic blades and bladelets from Pinson Mounds, Tennessee
Hopewell prismatic blade industries are a standardized technology but not a specialized one. Exactly why they are ubiquitous and synonymous with Hopewell is a puzzle. That Hopewell prismatic blade technology satisfied basic tool needs concurrent with efficient usage of toolstone are beyond dispute. Prismatic blades from Pinson Mounds and other Hopewell sites in the Midwest and Southeast United ...