Archaeology

On the sensitivity of the simulated European Neolithic transition to climate extremes
Was the spread of agropastoralism from the Fertile Crescent throughout Europe influenced by extreme climate events, or was it independent of climate? We here generate idealized climate events using palaeoclimate records. In a mathematical model of regional sociocultural development, these events disturb the subsistence base of simulated forager and farmer societies. We evaluate the regional sim...


Integrated palaeoecology and archaeology – a powerful approach for understanding pre-Columbian Amazonia
The old paradigm that Amazonia's tropical ecosystems prevented cultural development beyond small-scale shifting agricultural economies, that had little environmental impact, no longer holds true for much of Amazonia. A diversity of archaeological evidence, including terra preta soils, raised fields, causeways, large habitation mounds, geometric earthworks, and megalithic monuments, all point to...
Past perspectives for the future: foundations for sustainable development in East Africa
East African ecosystems are shaped by long-term socio-ecological interactions with a dynamic climate and increasing human interventions. Whereas in the past these have often been regarded solely in a negative light, more recent research from the perspective of historical ecology has shown that there has often been a strong beneficial connection between people and ecosystems in East Africa. Thes...


The world reshaped: practices and impacts of early agrarian societies
The contributions 2014 indicate that research into the study of early agriculture continues to remain a flourishing area of science. We discuss the contribution of the volume's papers and provide a review of how they add to our knowledge about the process to early agriculture, its development and impacts upon the Holocene landscape. The main focus of many of the papers is on the European Neolit...
Age and season of pig slaughter at Late Neolithic Durrington Walls (Wiltshire, UK) as detected through a new system for recording tooth wear
The recording of tooth wear is essential for the investigation of age in zooarchaeological assemblages, but most tooth wear methodologies apply only to mandibular teeth, thereby neglecting potentially valuable maxillary data. The large sample of pig maxillary jaws and teeth recovered at Durrington Walls has provided the opportunity to design a new recording method for maxillary as well as mandi...


Lambs to the Slaughter: A Zooarchaeological Investigation of Stone Circles in Mongolia
Stone circles are a common monumental feature of the Mongolian Bronze Age (c. 1500-800BC), frequently occurring in association with other monument types, especially khirigsuurs. Until now the content of the stone circles has not been identified, a fact which has hampered our understanding not only of khirigsuurs and their related cosmology but also of the contemporary economy, owing to a resear...
A rare non-trilobite artiopodan from the Guzhangian (Cambrian Series 3) Weeks Formation Konservat-Lagerstätte in Utah, USA
We describe a weakly biomineralized non-trilobite artiopodan arthropod from the Guzhangian Weeks Formation of Utah. Falcatamacaris bellua gen. et sp. nov. is typified by a thin calcitic cuticle, broad cephalon without eyes or dorsal ecdysial sutures, an elongate trunk with distinctively sickle-shaped pleural spines and a long tailspine with a bifurcate termination. The precise affinities of Fal...

A new species of Limnofregata (Pelecaniformes: Fregatidae) from the Early Eocene Wasatch Formation of Wyoming: implications for palaeoecology and palaeobiology
A humerus and a coracoid from the Early Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Washakie Basin of south-western Wyoming are the oldest materials (by ~2 million years) of the pelecaniform Limnofregata (Aves) and represent a new large species, Limnofregata hutchisoni sp. nov. This fossil is the oldest known member of the frigatebird lineage. Other than its large size relative to Limnofregata azygosterno...
Composition and interpretation of stratified deposits in ancestral Hopi villages at Homol’ovi
During more than 20 years excavating in five of the seven ancestral Hopi villages comprising the Homol’ovi Settlement Cluster in northeastern Arizona, an incredible diversity of depositional practices has been noted within and outside structures. This paper focuses on one particular class of deposits unique in its use of ash either as part of the composition of deposits or as caps to deep, c...

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Reveal and Interpret ‘Missing’ Archaeological Features at the Masseria Pantano Site in Apulia (Southern Italy)
A non-invasive investigation, integrating aerial photography and high-resolution magnetic survey, was carried out at the Masseria Pantano site (Apulia, Southern Italy) to obtain a more detailed reconstruction of an extensive ancient settlement, which revealed different phases of human frequentation. The results of the ground-based survey were also used to guide some archaeological excavations, ...
A Comprehensive Magnetic Survey of a Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure in West-central France for the Interpretation of Archaeological Features
This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the Neolithic causewayed enclosure of Bellevue (Chenommet, France). Geophysical investigations and archaeological excavations were used alternately in order to optimize the acquisition of accurate data at different spatial scales: mapping of major structures was obtained by magnetic prospection of the whole site, while excavation identified sma...

Structure of an Ancient Egyptian Tomb Inferred from Ground-Penetrating Radar Imaging of Deflected Overburden Horizons
Geophysical data acquisitions in most archaeological campaigns aim to image the target structure directly. The presence of a target, however, may be inferred from its interaction with surrounding layers, if its relationship with those layers can be characterized sufficiently. In this paper, we show the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect the subsurface continuation of the Ancient Eg...
A model for organic fossilization of the early cretaceous jehol lagerstatte based on the taphonomy of "ephemeropsis trisetalis
The taphonomic pathways of "Ephemeropsis trisetalis" nymphs (mayfly larvae) were systematically investigated based on fossils of different preservational types, collected during three high–stratigraphic-resolution (mm to cm) excavations in the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in the Sihetun area of western Liaoning, China. All fossils studied are fully articulated either in three or two ...
Eocene-miocene shallow-water carbonate platforms and increased habitat diversity in sarawak, malaysia
The Indo-Pacific marine biodiversity hotspot originated between the late Eocene and the early Miocene. Its origin coincides with an increase in availability of shallow-marine habitats driven by the opening of the South China Sea and the collision of Australia with the Pacific arcs and the southeast Asian margin. However, little is known about the distribution and diversity of past Indo-Pacific ...
The impact of high-energy storms on shallow-water nautilus (cephalopoda) taphonomy, lifou (loyalty islands)
Shells of the cephalopod Nautilus macromphalus were collected in 2011 from three bays on the island of Lifou in the South Pacific six months after a tropical cyclone passed over the island. All three bays were on the east side of the island; Bays 1 and 2 were 200 m apart whereas Bay 3 was 25 km to the north. Nautilus shells in Bays 1 and 2 were studied in 2008 after six years without tropical c...