Health

How Accurate Are Blood (or Breath) Tests for Identifying Self-Reported Heavy Drinking Among People with Alcohol Dependence?
Managing patients with alcohol dependence includes assessment for heavy drinking, typically by asking patients. Some recommend biomarkers to detect heavy drinking but evidence of accuracy is limited. Among people with dependence, we assessed the performance of disialo-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT, ≥1.7%), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, ≥66 U/l), either %dCDT or GGT positive,...


Can cone beam CT predict the hardness of interradicular cortical bone?
Orthodontic mini implants can be inserted at the interradicular site. The bone quality at this site may affect the stability and anchorage of the implant. Bone density is clinically evaluated by Hounsfield units (HU) obtained from cone beam CT (CBCT). The objective of this study was to determine the correlations between HU, microhardness and cortical bone thickness of interradicular site at var...
The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate
Number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats...


Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify the association between informal caregiving and health in the Sandwich Generation
Nearly 50 million Americans provide informal care to an older relative or friend. Many are members of the “sandwich generation”, providing care for elderly parents and children simultaneously. Although evidence suggests that the negative health consequences of caregiving are more severe for sandwiched caregivers, little is known about how these associations vary by sociodemographic factors....
Loneliness and health risk behaviours among Russian and U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional study
For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research...


Parental encouragement of healthy behaviors: adolescent weight status and health-related quality of life
Obesity is a major health concern for adolescents, with one in four being overweight or obese in Australia. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderation effect of parental encouragement of healthy behaviors on the relationship between adolescent weight status and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Baseline data were collected from 3,040 adolescents participating in the It's Your...
School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children
School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children's physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of ...

Mortality risk associated with underweight: a census-linked cohort of 31,578 individuals with up to 32 years of follow-up
In contrast to obesity, information on the health risks of underweight is sparse. We examined the long-term association between underweight and mortality by considering factors possibly influencing this relationship. We included 31,578 individuals aged 25-74 years, who participated in population based health studies between 1977 and 1993 and were followed-up for survival until 2008 by record li...
Protective factors against suicide among young-old Chinese outpatients
Suicide is common among the elderly worldwide. However, no literature could be found on the beliefs/expectations that protect young-old people from attempting suicide. The purpose of this study was to explore young-old outpatients' reasons for not killing themselves in Taiwan. MethodData for this qualitative descriptive study were extracted from a large research series. From the 83 elderly outp...

Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial
The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person's perception of smoking. The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be ran...
Vitamin D levels in children, adolescents, and young adults with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study
Hypovitaminosis D is common in the general population. Although many studies on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are available on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), few data are reported in juvenile-onset SLE (JSLE) patients. This study aimed to assess serum 25(OH)D levels in JSLE patients and to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in this population. Forty-five Caucasian JSLE patients...

Sleep disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Does vitamin D play a role?
Sleep disorders are common among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with unclear underlying mechanisms. We assessed the role of vitamin D in sleep quality of patients with SLE. A retrospective study was conducted on women with SLE for whom the following data were available at the same time; sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), disease activity, cumulative disease...
Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease associated with systemic lupus erythematous: difficult case report and literature review
Kikuchi–Fujimoto’s disease (KFD), or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a benign and self-limiting disease of unknown aetiology. KFD tends to affect a young population under 30 years of age and predominantly females. KFD is a rare pathology and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not frequent. Herein, we present the case of a male Italian patient with S...
Potential of Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound for Intracranial Hemorrhage: An In Vivo Feasibility Study
Because of the paucity of effective treatments for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the mortality rate remains at 40%-60%. A novel application of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for ICH may offer an alternative noninvasive treatment through the precise delivery of FUS under real-time MR imaging (MRI) guidance. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the parameters f...
Occurrence and Predictors of Persistent Impaired Glucose Tolerance After Acute Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiagnosed impaired glucose metabolism possibly requiring treatment. We aimed to assess the occurrence of persistent impaire...