Health

HDAC5 controls MEF2C-driven sclerostin expression in osteocytes
Osteocytes secrete paracrine factors that regulate the balance between bone formation and destruction. Among these molecules, sclerostin (encoded by the gene SOST) inhibits osteoblastic bone formation, and is an osteoporosis drug target. The molecular mechanisms underlying SOST expression remain largely unexplored. Here we report that histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) negatively regulates sclerosti...


Coeliac Disease Autoimmunity and Hip Fracture Risk: Findings from a Prospective Cohort Study
The impact of coeliac disease autoimmunity on bone health is unclear. We investigated the associations of seropositivity for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) and endomysial antibodies (EMA) with incident hip fractures using data from a prospective cohort study, Mini-Finland Health Survey. Baseline serum samples, taken in 1978-80, were tested for tTGA and EMA. Incident hip fractures up ...
Connexin 43 Channels are Essential for Normal Bone Structure and Osteocyte Viability
Connexin (Cx) 43 serves important roles in bone function and development. Targeted deletion of Cx43 in osteoblasts or osteocytes leads to increased osteocyte apoptosis, osteoclast recruitment, and reduced biomechanical properties. Cx43 forms both gap junction channels and hemichannels, which mediate the communication between adjacent cells or between cell and extracellular environments, respect...


Acute exercise stress reveals cerebrovascular benefits associated with moderate gains in cardiorespiratory fitness
Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhem...
Optimization and reliability of multiple postlabeling delay pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling during rest and stimulus-induced functional task activation
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assesse...


CFTR: cystic fibrosis and beyond
Cystic fibrosis (CF) remains the most common fatal hereditary lung disease. The discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene 25 years ago set the stage for: 1) unravelling the molecular and cellular basis of CF lung disease; 2) the generation of animal models to study in vivo pathogenesis; and 3) the development of mutation-specific therapies that are now bec...
Ageing and the epidemiology of multimorbidity
The world’s population is ageing and an important part of this demographic shift is the development of chronic illness. In short, a person who does not die of acute illnesses, such as infections, and survives with chronic illnesses is more likely to develop additional chronic illnesses. Chronic respiratory diseases are an important component of these diseases associated with ageing. This ...

Gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung
This review provides an overview of the relationship between ventilation/perfusion ratios and gas exchange in the lung, emphasising basic concepts and relating them to clinical scenarios. For each gas exchanging unit, the alveolar and effluent blood partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide (PO2 and PCO2) are determined by the ratio of alveolar ventilation to blood flow (V'A/Q') for each u...
Club cell 10-kDa protein attenuates airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-13 increase mucus secretion and inflammatory cytokine production in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We evaluated the effect of club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10), an anti-inflammatory protein produced by epithelial cells, on mucus secretion, cell morphology and inflammatory cytokine production. NHBE cells were cultured at an a...

Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case–control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed...
Longitudinal analysis of sarcoidosis blood transcriptomic signatures and disease outcomes
Previously, we demonstrated concordance in differentially expressed genes in sarcoidosis blood and lung, implicating shared dysfunction of specific immune pathways. In the present study, we hypothesised that expression levels of candidate genes in sarcoidosis blood could predict and track with disease outcomes longitudinally. We applied Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to a cross-sectional derivation...

Microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The objective of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, African Index Medicus, ResearchGate, SciELO, and the abstracts of the main conferences on infectious diseases and tropical me...
Comprehensive analysis of inflammatory markers in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with chronic inflammation but the pathological mechanisms are largely unknown. Our study aimed to simultaneously profile a broad range of cytokines in the supernatant of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgical material, as well as prospectively in patients with CTEPH to investigate whether circulating cytokines are associated w...
Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia predicts prevalent hypertension in the European Sleep Apnoea Database cohort study
Systemic hypertension is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but the pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood. A collaborative European network of 24 sleep centres established a European Sleep Apnoea Database to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity associated with OSAS.11 911 adults referred with suspected OSAS between March 2007 and September 2013 underwent o...
Pyrosequencing reveals transient cystic fibrosis lung microbiome changes with intravenous antibiotics
Chronic airway infection in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is polymicrobial and the impact of intravenous antibiotics on the bacterial community composition is poorly understood. We employed culture-independent molecular techniques to explore the early effects of i.v. antibiotics on the CF airway microbiome. DNA was extracted from sputum samples collected from adult subjects with CF at three ...