Psychology

Navigating Middle Grades: Role of Social Contexts in Middle Grade School Climate
During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal...


The Potential Impact of Intelligent Systems for Mobile Health Self-Management Support: Monte Carlo Simulations of Text Message Support for Medication Adherence
Mobile health (mHealth) services cannot easily adapt to users’ unique needs. We used simulations of text messaging (SMS) for improving medication adherence to demonstrate benefits of interventions using reinforcement learning (RL). We used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the relative impact of an intervention using RL to adapt SMS adherence support messages in order to more effectively ad...
Interdisciplinarity as cognitive integration: auditory verbal hallucinations as a case study
In this article, we advocate a bottom-up direction for the methodological modeling of interdisciplinary research based on concrete interactions among individuals within interdisciplinary projects. Drawing on our experience in Hearing the Voice (a cross-disciplinary project on auditory verbal hallucinations running at Durham University), we focus on the dynamic if also problematic integration of...


Defense Mechanisms and Implicit Emotion Regulation: A Comparison of a Psychodynamic Construct with One from Contemporary Neuroscience
A growing interest in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, particularly the subfield of implicit emotion regulation, brings new opportunity for the psychodynamic treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. At the same time, psychodynamic theorists have become more aware of the centrality of affects in mental life. This paper introduces a manualized psychodynamic approach called Reg...
Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data
Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the la...


A Nonparametric Test of Missing Completely at Random for Incomplete Multivariate Data
Missing data occur in many real world studies. Knowing the type of missing mechanisms is important for adopting appropriate statistical analysis procedure. Many statistical methods assume missing completely at random (MCAR) due to its simplicity. Therefore, it is necessary to test whether this assumption is satisfied before applying those procedures. In the literature, most of the procedures fo...
Sparse Versus Simple Structure Loadings
The component loadings are interpreted by considering their magnitudes, which indicates how strongly each of the original variables relates to the corresponding principal component. The usual ad hoc practice in the interpretation process is to ignore the variables with small absolute loadings or set to zero loadings smaller than some threshold value. This, in fact, makes the component loadings ...

Impacts of Family and Community Violence Exposure on Child Coping and Mental Health
An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between  children’s exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European–American, and African–American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either ho...
Time perception and time perspective differences between adolescents and adults
The present experiment aimed to investigate the differences in time perception and time perspective between subjects representing two developmental stages, namely adolescence and middle adulthood. Twenty Chinese adolescents aged 15–25 and twenty Chinese adults aged 35–55 participated in the study. A time discrimination task and a time reproduction task were implemented to measure the accura...

Stress improves selective attention towards emotionally neutral left ear stimuli
Research concerning the impact of psychological stress on visual selective attention has produced mixed results. The current paper describes two experiments which utilise a novel auditory oddball paradigm to test the impact of psychological stress on auditory selective attention. Participants had to report the location of emotionally-neutral auditory stimuli, while ignoring task-irrelevant chan...
Social Projection Increases for Positive Targets: Ascertaining the Effect and Exploring Its Antecedents
Social projection denotes the attribution of characteristics of the self to others and, therefore, increases perceived self–other similarity. The present research tests the assumption that positive but not negative targets elicit social projection. Earlier research has attributed an effect of target valence to mere consistency principles of judgment and has, thus, questioned projection pr...

A 3-year longitudinal study of children's comprehension of counting: Do they recognize the optional nature of nonessential counting features?
This 3-year longitudinal study examines developmental changes in children's ability to differentiate essential from nonessential counting features. Kindergarteners watched a computer-presented detection task which included three kinds of counts: correct conventional, erroneous and pseudoerrors (with and without statements of cardinal values for the sets). Children had to judge the correctness o...
Evaluating Visual Activity Schedules as Evidence-Based Practice for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1993 and 2013 to evaluate the quality of the Visual Activity Schedules (VAS) literature using current evidence-based criteria developed by Horner et al. (Except Child 71:165–179, 2005). Authors sought to determine whether VAS can be considered an evidence-based practice by expanding on the findings from prev...
Is the privacy paradox a relic of the past? An in-depth analysis of privacy attitudes and privacy behaviors
The privacy paradox states that online privacy concerns do not sufficiently explain online privacy behaviors on social network sites (SNSs). In this study, it was first asked whether the privacy paradox would still exist when analyzed as in prior research. Second, it was hypothesized that the privacy paradox would disappear when analyzed in a new approach. The new approach featured a multidimen...
Dispositional optimism, optimism priming, and prevention of ego depletion
Exerting self-control leads to a diminished capacity to carry out successive acts of self-control, a process termed ego depletion. The present study investigated whether dispositional optimism, priming of an optimistic orientation, or their interaction can counteract the ego depletion effect. A total of 160 participants performed a self-control-demanding weight-lifting task on two occasions. Ha...