Psychiatry

Explicit and implicit need for cognition and bottom-up/top-down attention allocation
Need for Cognition (NFC), the tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, is usually directly measured via self-report. In order to validate an indirect NFC Implicit Association Test, we followed up on evidence suggesting NFC to be related to electrocortical indicators of bottom-up and top-down attention allocation in an oddball paradigm. In 99 participants, we did not find effects of directly an...


Measuring Somatic Complaints in Primary School Children: Validation and Revision of the German Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI) and its Parental Version
The objective was a psychometric examination of a German translation of the Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI) and its parents’ version (P-CSI) and a replication of the item selection process of Walker et al. in J Pediatr Psychol 34:430–440 [5] for their revised version to create shorter German versions. Based on a school sample of 1,539 parents and 731 children, we explored the psyc...
The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents’ negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating
Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substanti...


Temporal Estimation of Threatening Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Investigation of the Effects of State Anxiety and Fearfulness
Prior studies suggest that particularly negative emotional events tend to be experienced as temporally dilated. Perceptual characteristics of the threat cue (averted or directed angry face), state as well as individual anxiety levels have been shown to contribute to the temporal distortions, but the interplay between these factors is not well understood. The present study investigated the relat...
Fear conditioning with film clips:A complex associative learning paradigm
We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex associative memories. Second, we explored whether manipulating the meaning and complexity of the CS-UCS association strengthe...


In double trouble for eating pathology? An experimental study on the combined role of perfectionism and body dissatisfaction
A number of correlational studies suggest that the combined presence of perfectionism and body dissatisfaction creates elevated risk for the development of eating disorder pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the causal role of this combination of risk factors for eating pathology. We conducted an experimental study in a sample of female college students (N = 47). Specifically, we pe...
Onset of common mental disorders and suicidal behavior following women’s first exposure to gender based violence: a retrospective, population-based study
Women exposed to gender-based violence (GBV) experience a high rate of common mental disorders and suicidal behaviour (“mental disturbance”). Little is known however about the timing of onset of mental disturbance following first exposure to GBV amongst women with no prior mental disorder. The analysis was undertaken on the Australian National Mental Health and Wellbeing Survey dataset (N =...

A genome-wide association study of suicide severity scores in bipolar disorder
Suicide claims one million lives worldwide annually, making it a serious public health concern. The risk for suicidal behaviour can be partly explained by genetic factors, as suggested by twin and family studies (reviewed in (Zai et al. 2012)). Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of suicide attempt on large samples of bipolar disorder (BD) patients from multiple sites have identif...
Protocol for the effect evaluation of Individual Placement and Support (IPS): a randomized controlled multicenter trial of IPS versus treatment as usual for patients with moderate to severe mental illness in Norway
Roughly one third of disability pensions in Norway are issued for mental and behavioral disorders, and vocational rehabilitation offered to this group has traditionally been dominated by train-and-place approaches with assisted or sheltered employment. Based on a more innovative place-and-train approach, Individual Placement and Support (IPS) involves supported employment in real-life competiti...

Cerebral metabolism in major depressive disorder: a voxel-based meta-analysis of positron emission tomography studies
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental illness with high lifetime prevalence close to 20%. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported decreased prefrontal, insular and limbic cerebral glucose metabolism in depressed patients compared with healthy controls. However, the literature has not always been consistent. To evaluate current evidence from PET studies, we conducte...
The relationship of psychological reactance, health locus of control and sense of self-efficacy with adherence to treatment in psychiatric outpatients with depression
Although non-adherence to antidepressant medications is a significant barrier to the successful treatment of depression in clinical practice, few potentially modifiable predictors of poor adherence to antidepressant treatment are known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychological reactance, health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy on adherence to treatme...

Predominant polarity in bipolar disorder and validation of the polarity index in a German sample
A large number of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) can be characterized by predominant polarity (PP), which has important implications for relapse prevention. Recently, Popovic et al. (EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARM 22: 339?346, 2012) proposed the Polarity Index (PI) as a helpful tool in the maintenance treatment of BD. As a numeric expression, it reflects the efficacy of drugs used in treatment of BD...
A theory-informed approach to mental health care capacity building for pharmacists
Pharmacists are knowledgeable, accessible health care professionals who can provide services that improve outcomes in mental health care. Various challenges and opportunities can exist in pharmacy practice to hinder or support pharmacists' efforts. We used a theory-informed approach to development and implementation of a capacity-building program to enhance pharmacists' roles in mental health c...
The Prevalence and Clinical features of The Night Eating Syndrome in Psychiatric Out-Patient Population
In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalance and clinical correlations of Night Eating Syndrome (NES) in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Four hundred thirthy three consecutive psychiatric out-patients older than 18years were evaluated in the outpatient clinics using clinical interview according to the DSM-IV with regard to psychiatric diagnosis. Participants were also screened for ...
Association Between Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Gene and Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease
The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene is a strong positional and biological candidate for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) susceptibility, with recent studies independently demonstrating an association between IDE gene variants and LOAD. However, previous data have been controversial. To investigate the relationship between IDE gene polymorphisms and LOAD risk, a case–control associa...