Pharmacology

Right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy
Here, we report a case of right radial nerve dysfunction following laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy under general anesthesia. A 75-year-old man was intubated without excessive retroflexion, and his upper body was held in place by lateral body positioners with protective cushions over the chest and acromioclavicular joints. The patient’s head was maintained at the center and held on the operatio...


A comparison between post-operative analgesia after intrathecal nalbuphine with bupivacaine and intrathecal fentanyl with bupivacaine after cesarean section
Adding intrathecal opioids to intrathecal local anesthetics to decrease their doses and provide hemodynamic stability are major goals during spinal anesthesia in cesarean section. Different opioids were used to select the one with the longest duration of analgesia and the least side effects. In this study, intrathecal nalbuphine was compared with intrathecal fentanyl as an adjuvant to hyperbari...
Signal enhancement of glucuronide conjugates in LC-MS/MS by derivatization with the phosphonium propylamine cation tris(trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium propylamine, for forensic purposes
Although chemical derivatization for signal enhancement in drug testing is most often associated with gas chromatography, it also has the potential to improve the detection of analytes poorly ionized by atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, such as electrospray ionization used in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A number of acidic compounds, namely drug glucuronides (e.g. conjugat...


Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for ulcerative colitis in Scotland between 1998–2000 and 2007–2009
Scottish nationwide linkage data from 1998 to 2000 demonstrated high 3-year mortality in patients hospitalised with ulcerative colitis (UC). To compare 3-year mortality, and factors related to mortality, in Scottish patients hospitalised with UC between 1998–2000 and 2007–2009. The Scottish Morbidity Records and linked datasets were used to assess 3-year mortality, standardised mortality ra...
Systematic review with network meta-analysis: the efficacy of anti-TNF agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease
Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents (anti-TNF) are effective therapies for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), but their comparative efficacy is unknown. To perform a network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of anti-TNF therapies in CD. After screening 506 studies, reviewers extracted information on 10 studies. Traditional meta-analysis (TMA) was used to compare each anti-TNF agent ...


Working memory deficit in patients with restless legs syndrome: an event-related potential study
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a working memory (WM) deficit in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, by studying the Sternberg WM task of event-related potential (ERP). Thirteen drug-naive RLS patients and 13 healthy age-matched controls with no sleep disturbances participated in the present study. P300 ERP was recorded during Sternberg WM task using digits as mnemo...
Evaluation of five different questionnaires for assessing sleep apnea syndrome in a sleep clinic
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Different clinical models and questionnaires have been used to evaluate patients with the highest OSAHS probability. To evaluate the clinical utility of five different questionnaires – STOP, STOPBang (SB), Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and 4-Variable Screening Tool (4-V)...

Time structure of leg movement activity during sleep in untreated Parkinson disease and effects of dopaminergic treatment
To evaluate the specific time structure of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) in untreated Parkinson disease (PD) patients by means of an advanced analysis; and to evaluate the effects of treatment on this activity, in a cross-sectional comparison and in a prospective follow-up study, in a subgroup of previously untreated patients. Forty-four consecutive PD patients were enrolled in the...
Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark
Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla DelHoll (Family: Moraceae) are used in the Nigeria's folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. To examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potent...

Preconditioning with the traditional Chinese medicine Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang initiates HIF-1α-dependent neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in rats
Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a classical heat-clearing and detoxicating formula of traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used to treat stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of HLJDT preconditioning on neurons under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). A stroke model of rats was obtained through...
Lipid-lowering ef fects of Danhong injection on hyperl ipidemia rats
Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese medical product extracted from Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Labiatae, Danshen in Chinese) and Flos Carthami (Carthamus tinctorius L., Compositae, Honghua in Chinese), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrinolytic properties and is used extensively for the clinical treatment of cardiovascu...

Simple validated LC–MS/MS method for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in plasma for clinical and forensic toxicological purposes
A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in 100μL human plasma was developed and validated. Sample pretreatment consisted of protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by a concentration step. analytes and levobupivacaine (internal standard) were separated on a Zorbax XDB-CN column (75mm×4.6mm i.d., 3.5μm) ...
A strategy for rapid analysis of xenobiotic metabolome of Sini decoction in vivo using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with pattern recognition approach
Xenobiotic metabolome identificatioqn of Chinese herbal prescription in biological systems is a very challenging task. In the present work, a reliable strategy based on the combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) and pattern recognition approach such as principal component analysis (PCA) and p...
Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits
A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was co...
Elevated postmortem striatal t-DARPP expression in schizophrenia and associations with DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism
Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32kDa (DARPP-32) and calcineurin (CaN) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because they function as molecular integrators of dopamine and glutamate signaling. DARPP-32 and CaN are mainly expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen; however, a few postmortem brain studies have focused on DARPP-32 expression in...