Pharmacology

Cardiac condition during cooling and rewarming periods of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Hypothermia has been used in cardiac surgery for many years for neuroprotection. Mild hypothermia (MH) [body temperature (BT) kept at 32-35[degree sign]C] has been shown to reduce both mortality and poor neurological outcome in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study investigated whether patients who were expected to benefit neurologically from therapeutic hypothermia (TH...


The pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of inhaled fluticasone furoate and vilanterol administered alone or simultaneously as fluticasone furoate/vilanterol
To investigate the potential for systemic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions between inhaled fluticasone furoate (FF) and vilanterol (VI) when delivered simultaneously via the ELLIPTA™ dry powder inhaler (DPI). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Healthy subjects (n = 16) received single doses of FF (800mcg), VI (100mcg), FF/VI (800/100mc...
Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein
Population pharmacokinetics (PK) of FVIII activity-time profiles following recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) and recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) dosing were evaluated in previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A (from two clinical trials). Potential covariates that may be determinants of variability in FVIII activity were identified. A 2-compartment model adequate...


Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence evaluation of single-tablet and separate-tablet regimens for once-daily cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir in healthy Japanese male subjects: A randomised, two-way crossover study
This randomised, 2-way crossover study evaluated the bioavailability of elvitegravir administered as the new individual tablet containing 150 mg and a cobicistat 150 mg tablet, concomitantly with a fixed-dose combination tablet containing 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG + COBI + FTC/TDF), in comparison with a single-tablet regimen contain...
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of thrombomodulin alfa to support dosing rationale in patients with renal impairment
Thrombomodulin alfa is a soluble recombinant human thrombomodulin that was reported to enhance the reversal of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in subjects with sepsis or hematologic malignancy and reduce mortality in subjects with sepsis and DIC. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of thrombomodulin alfa was performed based on rich samples collected in 24 healthy subjects (0.0...


Immunomodulatory effects of Ziziphora tenuior L. extract on the dendritic cells
Ziziphora tenuior L. (Kakuti in Persian) is used in traditional medicine for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders as carminative and analgesic plant. The other usages of this plant are included treatment of diarrhea and nausea. Therefore in the present study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of the ethanolic extract of this plant on the dendritic cells (DCs). :Ziziphora tenuior L. ex...
Duodenal ischemia and upper GI bleeding are dose-limiting toxicities of 24-h continuous intra-arterial pancreatic perfusion of gemcitabine following vascular isolation of the pancreatic head: early results from the Regional Chemotherapy in Locally Advance
Regional chemotherapy is used successfully in the treatment of both primary and secondary malignancies, in particular of the peritoneal surface and the liver, and is currently explored as an attractive approach for patients with locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. To establish the feasibility and toxicity of regional intra-arterial gemcitabine delivered as a 24-h continuous infus...

Role of beta-blockers in patients with COPD: Current perspective
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, with an abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to tobacco smoking. Systemic inflammation promotes atherosclerosis, to treat the complications of which beta-blockers are paramount. In the COPD setting, however, the use of beta-blockers has been limited by fears that they could ad...
The interdisciplinary management of complex regional pain syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome is an ill-defined disorder typified by disproportional pain to the inciting insult in a variable setting of vasomotor and autonomic changes. The exact etiology remains unclear but likely involves augmented cytokine release affecting both peripheral and central nervous systems with concomitant psychosocial intricacies. Management of complex regional pain syndrome s...

How do drug market changes affect characteristics of injecting initiation and subsequent patterns of drug use? Findings from a cohort of regular heroin and methamphetamine injectors in Melbourne, Australia
Changes in drug market characteristics have been shown to affect drug use patterns but few studies have examined their impacts on injecting initiation experiences and subsequent patterns of injecting drug use (IDU). We collected data on self-reported injecting initiation experiences and past-month patterns of IDU from 688 regular heroin and methamphetamine injectors in Melbourne, Australia, who...
Cannabis for Therapeutic Purposes and Public Health and Safety: A Systematic and Critical Review
The use of Cannabis for Therapeutic s (CTP) has recently become legal in many places. These policy and legal modifications may be related to changes in cannabis perceptions, availability and use and in the way cannabis is grown and sold. This may in turn have effects on public health and safety. To better understand the potential effects of CTP legalization on public health and safety, the curr...

Women, drugs and HIV
Women who inject drugs are among the most vulnerable to HIV through both unsafe injections and unprotected sex. They are also among the most hidden affected populations, as they are more stigmatized than their male counterparts. Many sell sex to finance their own and their partner's drug habit and often their partner exerts a significant amount of control over their sex work, condom use and inj...
Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Elosulfase Alfa, an Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Patients with Morquio A Syndrome
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, an enzyme required for degradation of the glycosaminoglycan keratan sulfate. Enzyme replacement therapy with elosulfase alfa provides a potential therapy for Morquio A syndrome. We analyzed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elosulfase alfa...
Phloroglucinols from Anti-Microbial Deposit-Resins of Australian Stingless Bees (Tetragonula carbonaria)
Stingless bees accumulate deposits of plant resins that are mixed with beeswax to produce propolis. Previous studies have reported anti-microbial constituents of stingless bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) propolis from East Australia, but several components remained to be characterized. In the search of natural products yet unreported for Australian propolis, four bee deposit-resins of T. carbonari...
Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids (Epanova®): A Review of Its Use in Patients with Severe Hypertriglyceridemia
Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova®) [OM3-CA] is the first free fatty acid form of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid being the most abundant) to be approved by the US FDA as an adjunct to diet to lower triglyceride levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL). Oral OM3-CA has greater bioavailability than ethyl ester form...