Pathology

Exuberant complex metaplastic carcinoma of the breast with SOX2 expression: Cove ring the full spectrum of ductal neoplasia of the breast
We report a unusual case of a 45-year-old woman with a massive metaplastic carcinoma of the breast with a complex admixture of components including giant pleomorphic cells, sarcomatoid areas, cysts with undifferentiated stratified epithelium, squamous carcinoma foci, high grade comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ, high grade invasive carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) and foci with osseou...


Problemas músculo-esqueléticos en patólogos españoles. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo
Los patólogos son médicos especializados en el diagnóstico morfológico de las enfermedades a través del estudio de muestras citotisulares para lo cual hacen uso, entre otras cosas, del microscopio óptico. Dicho uso se ha visto relacionado con la aparición de problemas músculo-esqueléticos. Se envió un cuestionario anónimo online a los miembros de la Sociedad Española de Anatomía Pa...
Autophagy is related to the hedgehog signaling pathway in human gastric adenocarcinoma: Prognostic significance of Beclin-1 and Gli2 expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma
Beclin-1 induces autophagy, which is known to be involved in many physiopathological processes such as cell development, aging, stress response, immune response and cancer. Several studies showed that Beclin-1 expression is associated with several prognostic factors of gastric carcinomas. Recently, the connection between autophagy and the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway has been studied. Here, ...


Management of flat epithelial atypia on breast core biopsy may be individualized based on correlation with imaging studies
Flat epithelial atypia of the breast commonly co-exists with atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular neoplasia, and indolent forms of invasive carcinomas such as tubular carcinoma. Most patients with pure flat epithelial atypia on core biopsy undergo surgical excision to evaluate for carcinoma in the adjacent breast tissue. Studies to date have reported varying upgrade rates with most recommending...
Next-generation sequencing of acute myeloid leukemia identifies the significance of TP53, U2AF1, ASXL1, and TET2 mutations
We assessed the frequency and clinicopathologic significance of 19 genes currently identified as significantly mutated in myeloid neoplasms, RUNX1, ASXL1, TET2, CEBPA, IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, FLT3, NPM1, TP53, NRAS, EZH2, CBL, U2AF1, SF3B1, SRSF2, JAK2, CSF3R, and SETBP1, across 93 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Of these cases, ...


Calculation of the Ki67 index in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a comparative analysis of four counting methodologies
Ki67 index is now an essential part of classification of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, its adaptation into daily practice has been fraught with challenges related to counting methodology. In this study, three reviewers used four counting methodologies to calculate Ki67 index in 68 well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: (1) ‘eye-ball’ estimation, which...
NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) expression in mesenchymal tumors
New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1, CTAG1B) is a cancer-testis antigen and currently a focus of several targeted immunotherapeutic strategies. We performed a large-scale immunohistochemical expression study of NY-ESO-1 using tissue microarrays of mesenchymal tumors from three institutions in an international collaboration. A total of 1132 intermediate and malignant and 175 ...

High p53 protein expression in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms is associated with adverse karyotype and poor outcome
Identification of p53-positive cells by immunohistochemistry in bone marrow from primary myelodysplastic syndrome patients correlates with the presence of TP53 mutations and poor prognosis. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are more frequent in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome than in de novo disease, but the role of p53 immunohistochemistry in the t...
Cross-reactivity of the BRAF VE1 antibody with epitopes in axonemal dyneins leads to staining of cilia
Antibodies that recognize neo-epitopes in tumor cells are valuable tools in the evaluation of tissue biopsy or resection specimens. The VE1 antibody that recognizes the V600E-mutant BRAF protein is one such example. We have recently shown that the vast majority of papillary craniopharyngiomas—tumors that arise in the sellar or suprasellar regions of the brain—harbor BRAF V600E m...

Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in liver biopsies after liver transplantation
We aimed to determine the rate of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, a recently increasingly recognized disease in the Western world, in liver transplant patients by direct molecular testing of liver tissue. A RT-PCR assay was designed for detecting the HEV open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 gene region in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and applied to all liver biopsies (n=...
Metastatic breast carcinomas display genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity
Metaplastic breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive histologic type of breast cancer, preferentially displaying a triple-negative phenotype. We sought to define the transcriptomic heterogeneity of metaplastic breast cancers on the basis of current gene expression microarray-based classifiers, and to determine whether these tumors display gene copy number profiles consistent with those of BRCA...

Hypertrophic lichen sclerosus sine sclerosis: clues to histopathologic diagnosis when presenting as psoriasiform lichenoid dermatitis
The histopathologic diagnosis of lichen sclerosus is usually facilitated by a subepidermal zone of sclerosis. In the absence of sclerosis, lichen sclerosus mostly presents itself as a psoriasiform lichenoid dermatitis that may be difficult to distinguish from other diseases. We sought to assess histopathologic findings that allow recognition of lichen sclerosus in the absence of sclerosis. We s...
Histiocytic typhlocolitis in two colony Beagle dogs
Two young female Beagle dogs in a laboratory colony with clinical signs of loose stools and fecal blood were confirmed to have histiocytic ulcerative colitis by histologic evaluation. This syndrome is well recognized in other dog breeds such as Boxers and related French Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Alaskan malamutes and Doberman Pinschers. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of large intestine from one dog...
Extensive lanthanum deposition in the gastric mucosa: The first histopathological report
Lanthanum carbonate is one of the new phosphate binders used for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, forms insoluble complexes within the lumen, and prevents the absorption of dietary phosphate. A 63-year-old female with a 7-year history of peritoneal dialysis, who was treated with lanthanum carbonate...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Recent advances in pathology and genetics
The discovery of KIT gene mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has provided a paradigm shift in the classification, diagnosis and molecular-targeted therapy of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. There is growing evidence of phenotype-genotype (KIT, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, succinate dehydrogenase or other driver gene mutation) and genotype-therapeutic (sensi...