Oncology

IGF1R Inhibition Enhances Wnt1-Mediated Tumorigenesis
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease subtype that, unlike other subtypes, lacks an effective targeted therapy. Inhibitors of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) have been considered for use in treating TNBC. Here, we provide genetic evidence that IGF1R inhibition promotes development of Wnt1-mediated murine mammary tumors that offer a model of TNBC. We found...


PRMT7 Induces EMT and Promotes Metastasis
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables metastasis. E-cadherin loss is a hallmark of EMT, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the epigenetics of this process. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7 functions in various physiologic processes, including mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and neural differentiation, but its possible roles in cancer and metastasis have not bee...
NQO1 Regulates Inflammatory Signaling
NADPH reductase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is needed to maintain a cellular pool of antioxidants, and this enzyme may contribute to tumorigenesis on the basis of studies in NQO1-deficient mice. In this work, we sought deeper insights into how NQO1 contributes to prostate carcinogenesis, a setting in which oxidative stress and inflammation are established contributors to disease dev...


AR Axis as the Mediator of SPOP in Prostate Cancer
Somatic missense mutations in the substrate-binding pocket of the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPOP are present in up to 15% of human prostate adenocarcinomas, but are rare in other malignancies, suggesting a prostate-specific mechanism of action. SPOP promotes ubiquitination and degradation of several protein substrates, including the androgen receptor (AR) coactivator SRC-3. However, the relat...
DNA Methylation and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a plastic process in which fully differentiated epithelial cells are converted into poorly differentiated, migratory and invasive mesenchymal cells, and it has been related to the metastasis potential of tumors. This is a reversible process and cells can also eventually undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. The existence of a dynamic EMT pro...


Trim32 Targets MYCN for Inducing Asymmetric Cell Division
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a physiologic process during development and tissue homeostasis. ACD produces two unequal daughter cells: one has stem/progenitor cell activity and the other has potential for differentiation. Recent studies showed that misregulation of the balance between self-renewal and differentiation by ACD may lead to tumorigenesis in Drosophila neuroblasts. However, it i...
SIX1 Coordinates with TGFbeta in Tumor Lymphangiogenesis
Lymphatic vessels are one of the major routes for the dissemination of cancer cells. Malignant tumors release growth factors such as VEGF-C to induce lymphangiogenesis, thereby promoting lymph node metastasis. Here, we report that sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1), expressed in tumor cells, can promote tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis by coordinating with TGFβ to increase ...

Involvement of Polymerase {eta} in Anticancer Drug Resistance
DNA repair processes are a key determinant of the sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics, which may induce certain repair genes as a mechanism to promote resistance. Here, we report the results of a screen for repair genes induced in cancer cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, which identified the translesion polymerase η (PolH) as a p53-regulated target acting as...
Full-Length HER2-TDB
Clinical results from the latest strategies for T-cell activation in cancer have fired interest in combination immunotherapies that can fully engage T-cell immunity. In this study, we describe a trastuzumab-based bispecific antibody, HER2-TDB, which targets HER2 and conditionally activates T cells. HER2-TDB specifically killed HER2-expressing cancer cells at low picomolar concentrations. Becaus...

Erlotinib-Induced Stem-like Cells in Lung Cancer
Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the most common actionable genetic abnormalities yet discovered in lung cancer. However, targeting these mutations with kinase inhibitors is not curative in advanced disease and has yet to demonstrate an impact on potentially curable, early-stage disease, with some data suggesting adverse outcomes. Here, we report that treatment of EG...
GBV-C Infection and Risk of NHL
Some retrospective studies suggest an association between infection with GB virus-C (GBV-C) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We evaluated this association prospectively in a nested case–control study within the U. S. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Cases (N = 658) and controls (N = 1,316) were individually matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, timing of stu...

AEG-1 Promotes Gastric Cancer via TLR4/NF-{kappa}B
Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. The expression of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is increased in gastric cancer tissues, thereby contributing to the inflammatory response. We investigated whether and how AEG-1 regulated proinflammatory...
Transcriptional Dynamics in Colorectal Carcinogenesis
Colorectal cancer develops in a sequential, evolutionary process, leading to a heterogenic tumor. Comprehensive molecular studies of colorectal cancer have been previously performed; still, the process of carcinogenesis is not fully understood. We utilized gene expression patterns from 94 samples including normal, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma colon biopsies and performed a coexpression network a...
Cdc42 Favors Growth of Intestinal Tumor Cells
Mutations in the APC or β-catenin genes are well-established initiators of colorectal cancer, yet modifiers that facilitate the survival and progression of nascent tumor cells are not well defined. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches in mouse colorectal cancer and human colorectal cancer xenograft models, we show that incipient intestinal tumor cells activate CDC42, an APC-interacting s...
EFA6B Antagonizes Breast Cancer
One of the earliest events in epithelial carcinogenesis is the dissolution of tight junctions and cell polarity signals that are essential for normal epithelial barrier function. Here, we report that EFA6B, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras superfamily protein Arf6 that helps assemble and stabilize tight junction, is required to maintain apico-basal cell polarity and mesenchymal ...