Nutrition

Exploitation of Diagnostic Computed Tomography Scans to Assess the Impact of Nutrition Support on Body Composition Changes in Respiratory Failure Patients
: Assessment of nutritional status in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is limited. Computed tomography (CT) scans that include the first to fifth lumbar region completed for diagnostic purposes measures fat and lean body mass (LBM) depots and are frequently done in ICU populations and can be used to quantify fat and LBM depots. The purpose of this study was to assess if these scans could meas...


Randomized Clinical Trial of New Intravenous Lipid (SMOFlipid 20%) Versus Medium-Chain Triglycerides/Long-Chain Triglycerides in Adult Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery
: SMOFlipid 20% is intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), olive oil, and fish oil as a mixed emulsion containing α-tocopherol. The aim was to assess the efficacy of this new ILE in gastrointestinal surgery compared with MCT/LCT. In this prospective study, 40 patients were randomized to SMOFlipid 20% or MCT/LCT (Lipoven...
Β-Cryptoxanthin rich Paprika extract prevents ovariectomy induced bone loss in Wistar rats
Recent studies show that high intake of carotenoids is helpful in preventing bone loss in post-menopausal women. Carotenoids like β-cryptoxanthin increases calcium and phosphorus deposition in cultured osteoblasts. β-Cryptoxanthin is also reported to have anabolic property in cultured osteoblast cells. It can also inhibit bone resorption process. Paprika and its dietary products are rich in c...


Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model
Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient os...
Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG) in the liver (steatosis) that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis), which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with NASH may ...


How to Promote Bedside Placement of the Postpyloric Feeding Tube: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
The optimal method of achieving fast, safe, and accurate postpyloric tube placement at the bedside remains controversial. This study investigated whether facilitating techniques of bedside placement would improve the rate of successful placement of postpyloric tubes when compared with the standard technique and whether strategies should be confined to adult or pediatric patients. We searched el...
Arm Span and Ulnar Length Are Reliable and Accurate Estimates of Recumbent Length and Height in a Multiethnic Population of Infants and Children under 6 Years of Age
Surrogate measures are needed when recumbent length or height is unobtainable or unreliable. Arm span has been used as a surrogate but is not feasible in children with shoulder or arm contractures. Ulnar length is not usually impaired by joint deformities, yet its utility as a surrogate has not been adequately studied. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the accuracy and reliabil...

Two Different Doses of Supplemental Vitamin A Did Not Affect Mortality of Normal-Birth-Weight Neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Whether neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) should be policy in areas with vitamin A deficiency is debated. We observed that a smaller dose of vitamin A may decrease mortality more than a larger dose and conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau with the primary aim of comparing the effect of 50,000 with 25,000 IU neonatal vitamin A on infant mortalit...
Influence of Phytase, EDTA, and Polyphenols on Zinc Absorption in Adults from Porridges Fortified with Zinc Sulfate or Zinc Oxide
Fortification of cereal staples with zinc is recommended to combat zinc deficiency. To optimize zinc absorption, strategies are needed to overcome the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) and perhaps polyphenols. Five zinc absorption studies were conducted in young adults consuming maize or sorghum porridges fortified with 2 mg zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or zinc oxide (ZnO) and containing co...

Linear Growth Deficit Continues to Accumulate beyond the First 1000 Days in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Global Evidence from 51 National Surveys
Growth faltering is usually assessed using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs), which have been used for comparisons of children of different age and sex composition across populations. Because the SD (denominator) for calculating HAZ increases with age, the usefulness of HAZs to assess changes in height over time (across ages) is uncertain. We posited that population-level changes in height as popu...
Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Childhood Overweight in a Large Chinese Cohort
The association between breastfeeding status and childhood overweight is inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood overweight risk in children 4–5 y of age in Southeast China. Among 97,424 children enrolled between 1999 and 2009 in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 42,550 of them were included in the final analysis wit...

Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Are Associated with High Urinary Enterolactone Concentration, Independent of Urinary Enterodiol Concentration and Dietary Fiber Intake in Adults
The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003–2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake ...
Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring
Adequate iodine status in early life is crucial for neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on fetal growth. The present study investigated the potential impact of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on offspring birth size. This large prospective cohort study was nested in a Bangladeshi population-based randomized supplementat...
Maternal but Not Fetal FADS Gene Variants Modify the Association between Maternal Long-Chain PUFA Intake in Pregnancy and Birth Weight
Several studies have shown a positive association between maternal fish intake in pregnancy and pregnancy duration and child birth weight (BW), probably due to fish n–3 (-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). n–3 LC-PUFAs can also be synthesized endogenously, and their synthesis depends on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gen...
Partly Replacing Meat Protein with Soy Protein Alters Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity
Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk, strictly controlled, weight-maintaining, moderately high-protein diet rich in ...