Nutrition

Excess α-tocopherol decreases extrahepatic phylloquinone in phylloquinone-fed rats but not menaquinone-4 in menaquinone-4-fed rats
The effects of vitamin E on vitamin K metabolism were elucidated by comparing the effect of tocopherol intake on vitamin K concentrations in rats fed phylloquinone (PK) or menaquinone (MK)-4. and resultsInitially, the dietary effect of RRR-α-tocopherol, but not RRR-γ-tocopherol, in decreasing extrahepatic PK concentrations was confirmed. Subsequently, rats were fed a PK or MK-4-containing die...


The molecular mechanisms underpinning the therapeutic properties of oleanolic acid, its isomer and derivatives for type 2 diabetes and associated complications
Recent research has uncovered the molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic properties of oleanolic acid (OA), its isomer ursolic acid (UA), and derivatives. In particular, recent reports have highlighted the benefits of these compounds in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes and associated life-threatening complications, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nephropat...
Campus-Based Snack Food Vending Consumption
To evaluate the purchases of university vending machine clientele and to understand what consumers purchase, purchase motivations, and purchase frequency after implementation of a vending policy designed to promote access to healthier snack options. Cross-sectional data collection from consumers at 8 campus vending machines purposefully selected from a list of highest-grossing machines. Vending...


Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion
Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We also evaluated the effects of AA on expression of sodium-dependen...
Analysis of Wheat Prolamins, the Causative Agents of Celiac Sprue, Using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)
Wheat prolamins, commonly known as “gluten”, are a complex mixture of 71–78 proteins, which constitute ~80% of the proteins in the wheat grains and supply 50% of the global dietary protein demand. Prolamins are also responsible for numerous gluten-induced disorders and determine the unique visco-elastic properties of the wheat dough. These properties necessitate the reliable determination...


Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, an...
Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and aga...

Effects of Saskatoon Berry Powder on Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Wall of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Diabetic Mice
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Monocyte adhesion is an early event for atherogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that dark-skin berries had cardiovascular protective effects. We hypothesize that SB powder may reduce monocyte adhesion in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) diabetic mice. Wild-type and db/db mice were fed with ch...
Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts
Nsclc is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Curcumin is involved in various biological pathways leading to inhibition of nsclc growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on expression of NF-kB-related proteins in vitro and in vivo and on growth and metastasis in an intra-lung tumor mouse model. H1975 nsclc cells were treated with curcumin (0-50μM) alon...

Lactoferrin Up-regulates Intestinal Gene Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factors BDNF, UCHL1 and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity to Alleviate Early Weaning Diarrhea in Postnatal Piglets
The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development, maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study we supplemented postnatal piglets with Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285mg/kg/d from 3~38days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes encoding BDNF ...
Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and B-vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men
The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and B-vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers, or resting heart rate and blood pressure would be observed. Additionally, we hypothesized that body composition and perf...

Postprandial oxidative stress is increased after a phytonutrient-poor food but not after a kJ matched phytonutrient-rich food
Research indicates that energy dense foods increase inflammation and oxidative activity, thereby contributing to the development of vascular disease. However, it is not clear whether the high kJ load alone, irrespective of the nutritional content of the ingested food, produces the postprandial oxidative and inflammatory activity. This study investigated the hypothesis that ingestion of a high f...
Validity and Reproducibility of an Interviewer-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire in Austrian Adults at Risk of or with Overt Diabetes Mellitus
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) provide an inexpensive tool for dietary assessment. Given the scarcity of data on their validity for nutritional analysis in persons with overt diabetes mellitus or with increased risk of diabetes (relatives of diabetes patients), this study tests the hypothesis that a FFQ, adapted to local dietary habits, yields a reliable estimate of nutrient intake when c...
Egg n-3 Fatty Acid Composition Modulates Biomarkers of Choline Metabolism in Free-Living Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Women of Reproductive Age
The lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) dietary regimen allows eggs, which are a rich source of choline. Consumption of eggs by LOV women may be especially important during pregnancy and lactation when demand for choline is high. The aim of this single blind, randomized, crossover-feeding study was to determine how near-daily egg consumption influenced biomarkers of choline metabolism in healthy LOV w...
Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among University Students in Ghana
Dietary intake is a strong modifiable index for Metabolic Risk Factors (MRF) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Poor dietary intake has been shown among Ghanaian university students but little is known about how that is related to MRF. This study examined dietary patterns and MRF among KNUST students. Data were collected from 66 randomly selected undergraduate students (31 males and 35...