Nutrition

Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study
Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. This was a crossover, ran...


A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women
To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring...
Does Sufficient Evidence Exist to Support a Causal Association between Vitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk? An Assessment Using Hill’s Criteria for Causality
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been found to be inversely associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review looks for evidence of a causal association between low 25(OH)D levels and increased CVD risk. We evaluated journal articles in light of Hill’s criteria for causality in a ...


The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety
Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role...
Yerba Mate (Illex Paraguariensis) ingestion augments fat oxidation and energy expenditure during exercise at various submaximal intensities
Ingesting Yerba Mate (YM) has become widely popular for health promotion, obesity prevention and body weight reduction, primarily due its thermogenic effectiveness. However, the YM effects on fat metabolism during exercise, when fat metabolism is already increased several fold, are unknown. The present study investigated whether acute YM ingestion augments fat metabolism parameters of fatty aci...


Betanin – a food colorant with biological activity
Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments which are subdivided in red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins. Due to glycosylation and acylation betalains exhibit a huge structural diversity. Betanin (betanidin-5-O-β-glucoside) is the most common betacyanin in the plant kingdom. According to the regulation on food additives betanin is permitted quantum satis as a natu...
Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes
Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine t...

Ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels in Gaucher disease type I patients on enzyme replacement therapy
Gaucher disease type I (GD type I) is characterized by clinical heterogeneity and is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as increased basal metabolic rate. To evaluate ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with GD type I on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A cross-sectional study of patients with GD type I (n = 15), matched for sex, age and BMI with healthy controls. The ...
Allantoin activates imidazoline I-3 receptors to enhance insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells
Imidazoline I3 receptors (I-3R) can regulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. It has been indicated that allantoin ameliorates hyperglycemia by activating imidazoline I2 receptors (I-2R). Thus, the effect of allantoin on I-3R is identified in the present study. We used male Wistar rats to screen allantoin's ability for lowering of blood glucose and stimulation of insulin secretion. C...

Maternal dietary intake of folate, vitamin B12 and MTHFR 677C>T genotype: their impact on newborn’s anthropometric parameters
In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and their interactions with maternal polymorphism of MTHFR (677C>T; 1298A>C) on intrauterine development. Anthropometric parameters were obtained from 231 newborns that belong to a prospective birth cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Maternal dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate was assessed using a...
Performance during a 20-km cycling time-trial after caffeine ingestion
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine ingestion on the performance and physiological variables associated with fatigue in 20-km cycling time trials. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 13 male cyclists (26???10 y, 71???9?kg, 176???6?cm) were randomized into 2 groups and received caffeine (CAF) capsules (6?mg.kg?1) or placebo (PLA) 60?min before perf...

A Case of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in a Severely Malnourished, HIV-Negative Patient: A Role for Malnutrition in Opportunistic Infections?
Malnutrition increases the risk of infections in patients receiving medical and surgical procedures, but it is not clear whether it may facilitate also the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative patients not receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Here we report the first case of a non-HIV, severely malnourished woman who developed Pneumocyst...
Inter-strain differences in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis to fibrosis in mice are associated with altered hepatic iron metabolism
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health problem worldwide. Currently, there is a lack of conclusive information to clarify the molecular events and mechanisms responsible for the progression of NAFLD to fibrosis and cirrhosis and, more importantly, for differences in inter-individual disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of inter-individual differe...
Pathophysiological basis for compromised health beyond generations: Role of maternal high fat diet and low-grade chronic inflammation
Early exposure to a fat-enriched diet programs the developmental profile, thus is associated with disease susceptibility in subsequent generations. Chronic low-grade inflammation, resulting from maternal high fat diet, is activated in the fetal environment and in many organs of offspring, including placenta, adipose, liver, vascular system and brain. The prevalence of an inflammatory response i...
Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. and resultsIn a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for three days. After a three-da...