Neurology

Working memory updating involves item-specific removal
The ability to keep working memory content up to date is vital for a number of higher cognitive functions such as navigation and reasoning, but it is also crucial for the effective operation of working memory itself. Removing outdated or irrelevant information allows focused processing of relevant information, and minimizes interference. We present evidence from three experiments that (1) peopl...


NGF-induced mechanical sensitization of the masseter muscle is mediated through peripheral NMDA receptors
Intramuscular injection of nerve growth factor (NGF) in healthy humans mimics some of the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). We hypothesized that NGF induces a prolonged myofascial mechanical sensitization by increasing peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, leading to an enhanced response of muscle nociceptors to endogenous glutamate. Behavioral ex...
Decelerated transport and its mechanism of 2,5-hexanedione on middle-molecular-weight neurofilament in rat dorsal root ganglia cells
Chronic exposure to n-hexane induces peripheral-central axonopathy, mediated by its metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD), in occupational workers and experimental animals, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 2,5-HD on middle-molecular-weight neurofilament (NF-M) axonal transport using live-cell imaging technique in cultured rat dors...


Altered acetylcholine release in the hippocampus of dystrophin-deficient mice
Mild cognitive impairments have been described in one-third of patients with Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD). DMD is characterized by progressive and irreversible muscle degeneration caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and lack of the protein expression. Previously, we have reported altered concentrations of α7- and β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in hippocampa...
The effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and acetyl-l-carnitine on neural survival, neuroinflammation and regeneration following spinal cord injury
Traumatic spinal cord injury induces a long-standing inflammatory response in the spinal cord tissue, leading to a progressive apoptotic death of spinal cord neurons and glial cells. We have recently demonstrated that immediate treatment with the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) attenuates neuroinflammation, induces axonal sprouting, and reduces the death of mot...


Role of dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic neurons in hindbrain glucoprivic inhibition of the luteinizing hormone surge in the steroid-primed ovariectomized female rat: Effects of 5-thioglucose on A2 functional biomarker and AMPK activity
Neuro-glucostasis is required for normal expression of the steroid positive-feedback-induced preovulatory pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, a critical element of female reproduction. Glucoprivic signals from the caudal hindbrain restrain this surge, but the cellular source of this stimulus is unclear. Norepinephrine (NE) exerts well-defined stimulatory effects on the reproductive neuroe...
Novel presenilin mutations within Moroccan patients with Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that causes gradual and irreversible loss of higher brain functions and is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, as assessed by autopsy and clinical series. Furthermore, it has an annual incidence of approximately 3% in the 65–74-year-old age group. This incidence rate doubles with every increment of 5years above the age o...

Linking pathways in the developing and aging brain with neurodegeneration
The molecular and cellular mechanisms, which coordinate the critical stages of brain development to reach a normal structural organization with appropriate networks, are progressively being elucidated. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence of the occurrence of developmental alterations induced by genetic or environmental factors leading to the formation of aberrant networks associa...
The maintenance of long-term memory in the hippocampus depends on the interaction between N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive factor and Glua2
The maintenance of established memories has recently been shown to involve the stabilization of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (GluA2/AMPARs) at postsynaptic membranes. Previous studies have suggested that N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) regulates the stabilization of AMPARs at the synaptic membrane. We therefore disrupted the interaction between GluA2 and NSF in the dorsal hippocampus...

The protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK1) interacts with and attenuates parkin-associated endothelial-like receptor (PAEL) receptor-mediated cell death
The parkin-associated endothelial-like receptor (PAELR, GPR37) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with and is degraded by parkin-mediated ubiquitination. Mutations in parkin are thought to result in PAELR accumulation and increase neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we find that the protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK1) interacts with PAELR. Specif...
Visuo-spatial ability in individuals with Down syndrome: Is it really a strength?
Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive lite...

A comparison of family financial and employment impacts of fragile X syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability
This study compares the family financial and employment impacts of having a child with fragile X syndrome (FXS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or intellectual disabilities (ID). Data from a 2011 national survey of families of children with FXS were matched with data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs 2009–2010 to form four analytic groups: children with FXS ...
Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills
The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results s...
Implicit learning and reading: Insights from typical children and children with developmental dyslexia using the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm
We examined implicit learning in school-aged children with and without developmental dyslexia based on the proposal that implicit learning plays a significant role in mastering fluent reading. We ran two experiments with 16 typically developing children (9 to 11-years-old) and 16 age-matched children with developmental dyslexia using the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm. In Experiment...
Motor and language abilities from early to late toddlerhood: Using formalized assessments to capture continuity and discontinuity in development
Developmental tests reflect the premise that decreases in skills over time should be a sign of atypical development. In contrast, from a psychological perspective, discontinuity may be viewed as a normal part of typical development. This study sought to describe the variability in patterns of continuity and discontinuity in developmental scores over time. Seventy-six toddlers (55% boys) from a ...