Neurology

Anticipatory looks reveal expectations about discourse relations
Previous research provides evidence for expectation-driven processing within sentences at phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of linguistic structure. Less well-established is whether comprehenders also anticipate pragmatic relationships between sentences. To address this, we evaluate a unit of discourse structure that comprehenders must infer to hold between sentences in order for a di...


What is adaptive about adaptive decision making? A parallel constraint satisfaction account
There is broad consensus that human cognition is adaptive. However, the vital question of how exactly this adaptivity is achieved has remained largely open. Herein, we contrast two frameworks which account for adaptive decision making, namely broad and general single-mechanism accounts vs. multi-strategy accounts. We propose and fully specify a single-mechanism model for decision making based o...
Social interaction of rats is related with baseline prepulse inhibition level
The symptoms of schizophrenia are evaluated in three general categories: positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex is commonly used to model positive and cognitive symptoms in experimental animals. On the other hand, deficient social interaction (SI) is a common model of negative symptoms. Here we tested whether PPI provide...


Artemisia santolinifolia enhances glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract
Artemisia extracts have been used as remedies for a variety of maladies related to metabolic and gastrointestinal control. Because the vagal afferent-nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) synapse regulates the same homeostatic functions affected by Artemisia, it is possible that these extracts may have activity at the synaptic level in the NST. Therefore, we evaluated how extracts of three common...
Dysbindin-1, a schizophrenia-related protein, interacts with HDAC3
DTNBP1 is a key candidate gene associated with schizophrenia. The expression of its protein product, dysbindin-1, is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients; however, the physiological functions of dysbindin-1 in the central nervous system are unclear. Several studies have shown that both dysbindin-1 and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) can be phosphorylated by the DNA-dependent protein ki...


Development of a new clot formation protocol for standardized in vitro investigations of sonothrombolysis
Agreement about the most suitable clot formation protocol for sonothrombolysis investigations is lacking. Lysis rates vary strongly owing to different test conditions and, thus, cannot be compared. We aim to establish a simple but physiologically grounded protocol for in vitro coagulation to enable standardized sonothrombolysis investigations. Clots were generated from platelet-rich plasma (PRP...
Does long time spending on the electronic devices affect the reading abilities? A cross-sectional study among Chinese school-aged children
Home literacy environment (HLE) is one of most important modifiable risk factors to dyslexia. With the development in technology, we include the electronic devices usage at home, such as computers and televisions, to the definition of HLE and investigate its impact on dyslexia based on the on-going project of Tongji's Reading Environment and Dyslexia Study. The data include 5063 children, prima...

Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism
Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated ob...
Gait characteristics of children with cerebral palsy as they walk with body weight unloading on a treadmill and over the ground
Body weight support (BWS) has become a typical strategy for gait training, in special with children with cerebral palsy (CP). Although several findings have been reported in the literature, it remains uncertain how different types of surfaces and gradual amount of BWS can facilitate the mobility of children with CP. The aim of this study was to investigate gait kinematic parameters of children ...

Misleading face-based judgment of cognitive level in intellectual disability: The case of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
People spontaneously use faces to make inferences about other's personality traits or abilities, which generally lead to invalid conclusions. Here, we show first evidence that perceived variations in the facial appearance of 20 children with trisomy 21 (t21) influence how they are perceived in terms of intelligence (or intellectual disability), the more “trisomic” faces being rated as less ...
Is child intelligence associated with parent and sibling intelligence in individuals with developmental disorders? An investigation in youth with 22q11.2 deletion (velo-cardio-facial) syndrome
Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a copy-number variation (CNV) genetic disorder, demonstrate a great deal of variability in IQ scores and are at particular risk for cognitive difficulties, with up to 45% experiencing intellectual disability. This study explored the IQ relationship between individuals with 22q11DS, their parents and their siblings. Participants included individ...

Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children
The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n =31) and a group of control children (n =38), aged 7–12 years. All children were categorized in f...
Individuals with intellectual disability have lower voluntary muscle activation level
The aim of this study was to explore the voluntary activation level during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) versus individuals without ID using the twitch interpolation technique. Ten individuals with mild ID (ID group) and 10 sedentary men without ID (control group) participated in this study. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consiste...
An animal study to examine the effects of the bilateral, epidural cortical stimulation on the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
We examined the effects of the unilateral cortical stimulation on the survival of neurons showing degenerative changes and compared those in delaying the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) between the unilateral cortical stimulation and the bilateral one in an animal experimental model using mice. We used 19 G93A transgenic mice and randomly divided into three groups: the contro...
Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age
The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall i...