Neurology

Triadopathies: An Emerging Class of Skeletal Muscle Diseases
The triad is a skeletal muscle substructure responsible for the regulation of excitation–contraction coupling. It is formed by the close apposition of the T-tubule and the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum. A rapidly growing list of skeletal myopathies, here referred to as triadopathies, are caused by gene mutations in components of the triad. These disorders, at their root, are caused by defec...


Shotgun approaches to gait analysis: insights & limitations
Identifying features for gait classification is a formidable problem. The number of candidate measures is legion. This calls for proper, objective criteria when ranking their relevance. Following a shotgun approach we determined a plenitude of kinematic and physiological gait measures and ranked their relevance using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) supplemented by logistic and partial...
Neurologic Manifestations of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
Hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders can produce a wide spectrum of neurologic complications both affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. These manifestations range in severity from coma in acute liver failure and acute pancreatitis, to minor cognitive changes in chronic portosystemic encephalopathy and hepatitis C. Cerebrovascular diseases can complicate...


Imaging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration
The term frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders that target the frontal and temporal lobes. It accounts for approximately 10 % of pathologically confirmed dementias but has been demonstrated to be as prevalent as Alzheimer’s disease in patients below the age of 65. The 3 major clinical syndromes associated with FTLD include behavioral varian...
How to improve access to appropriate therapy and outcome of the acute ischemic stroke: a 24-month survey of a specific pre-hospital planning in Northern Italy
Few patients with acute cerebral infarction are medicated with thrombolysis as yet. Thus, a specific plan was created in the area of Bergamo in Northern Italy to increase the number of procedures. The plan, started in 2010, consisted of: (1) subdivision of the area of Bergamo into three zones, each one served by a single Stroke-Unit (SU) licensed to thrombolysis; information to population via n...


Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine alleviates neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglia by downregulating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2A
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a member of the small proline-directed serine/threonine kinase family. Cdk5 is not involved in cell cycle regulation, but is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of Cdk5 in neuropathic pain remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Cdk5 is involved in neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We inject...
Hesperidin attenuates oxidative and neuronal damage caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in a C57BL/J6 mouse model
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hesperidin (HP) on neuronal damage in brain tissue caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in C57BL/J6 mice. For this purpose, a total of 40 mice were divided equally into four groups: (1) sham-operated (SH), global cerebral I/R, HP, and HP+I/R. The SH group was used as a control. In the I/R group, the bilateral carotid arteries...

Curcumin attenuates ischemia-like injury induced IL-1β elevation in brain microvascular endothelial cells via inhibiting MAPK pathways and nuclear factor-κB activation
Inflammatory reactions play a key role in the cerebral injury after stroke or other ischemic brain diseases. Curcumin, which is extracted from herb turmeric, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injured brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Rat BMECs ...
Caloric restriction can improve learning ability in C57/BL mice via regulation of the insulin-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
To identify the molecular mechanism underlying improved spatial learning ability of C57/BL mice on a caloric restricted (CR) diet. Seven-week-old male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC group, n = 10), high energy group (n = 10), and low energy group (CR group, n = 10). Body mass and levels of blood glucose were measured every 2 weeks over the c...

Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study
Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive ...
Spatiotemporal properties of auditory intensity processing in multisensor MEG
Loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) evaluates loudness processing in the human auditory system and is often altered in patients with psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that this measure may be used as an indicator of the central serotonergic system through the highly serotonergic innervation of the auditory cortex. However, differences among the commonl...

Sparse encoding of automatic visual association in hippocampal networks
Intelligent action entails exploiting predictions about associations between elements of ones environment. The hippocampus and mediotemporal cortex are endowed with the network topology, physiology, and neurochemistry to automatically and sparsely code sensori-cognitive associations that can be reconstructed from single or partial inputs. Whilst acquiring fMRI data and performing an attentional...
Which Patients with Parkinson's Disease Participate in Clinical Trials? One Centre's Experiences with a New Cell Based Therapy Trial (TRANSEURO)
There is currently little evidence regarding the selection of patients for clinical trials in Parkinson's Disease (PD), especially those involving experimental therapies delivered using invasive techniques. Understanding which patients are recruited will increase awareness of issues regarding parity of access to clinical trials and have an impact on the wider applicability of results, as well a...
Pubertal Development in Rett Syndrome Deviates from Typical Females
Rett syndrome is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births, most experiencing reduced growth. We characterized pubertal trajectories in females with Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that pubertal trajectory deviates from the general female population with early pubertal onset and delayed menarche. Participants were individuals enrolled in the Ret...
Identical ATP1A3 mutation causes alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism phenotypes
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. We present a child with topiramate-responsive alternating hemiplegia of childhood who was tested for an ATP1A3 gene mutation. Gene sequencing revealed an identical ATP1A3 mutation as ...