Neurology

Acetyl-L-carnitine and oxaloacetate in post-treatment against LTP impairment in a rat ischemia model. An in vitro electrophysiological study
A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such favorable endogenous molecules. ALC can...


Disease duration of episodic migraine correlates with modified amplitudes and habituation of contingent negative variation
Cortical habituation in episodic migraine patients without medication overuse headache (MOH), recorded by contingent negative variation (CNV), is often reduced compared with healthy controls. There is evidence that with longer duration of migraine disease (DOD) amplitudes and habituation of CNV become progressively abnormal. The aim of the study was to examine habituation characteristics of con...
A model to investigate SNPs’ interaction in GWAS studies
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are able to identify the role of individual SNPs in influencing a phenotype. Nevertheless, such analysis is unable to explain the biological complexity of several diseases. We elaborated an algorithm that starting from genes in molecular pathways implicated in a phenotype is able to identify SNP–SNP interaction’s role in association with the phenotype....


Comparison of different quantification methods to determine hippocampal damage after cerebral ischemia
Experimental stroke studies use multiple techniques to evaluate histopathological damage. Unfortunately, sensitivity and reproducibility of these techniques are poorly characterized despite pivotal influence on results. The present study compared several quantification methods to differentiate between two severities of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were rand...
High purity of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells obtained from neural stem cells: Suitable for clinical application
Recent studies have suggested that the transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be a promising potential therapeutic strategy for a broad range of diseases affecting myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, periventricular leukomalacia, and spinal cord injury. Clinical interest arose from the potential of human stem cells to be directed to OPCs for the clinical application of t...


Improving AM ester calcium dye loading efficiency
Calcium imaging has unraveled the calcium-dependent mechanisms underlying neuronal function. Acetoxymethyl ester (AM) dyes are widely employed for calcium imaging. Pluronic F127 (PF127) as a surfactant and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent are used to dissolve the dyes, but concentrations vary between protocols. How these substances affect loading efficiency is not well characterized. We a...
Genetic variation in serotonin transporter modulates tactile hyperresponsiveness in ASD
Several lines of evidence implicate dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the serotonin transporter (5-H, SERT) has been scrutinized as an ASD candidate risk gene. SERT plays key roles in the development of circuits that underlie sensory function, particularly in the somatosensory system. One previous study in ASD found association of a rare...

The effects of coping style, social support, and behavioral problems on the well-being of mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Lebanon
The present study examined the effects of coping styles, social support, and child's behavioral symptoms on the well-being of 65 mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Lebanon. Comparisons to the well-being of 98 mothers of typically developing children were also drawn. Regression analyses showed that disengagement and distraction coping predicted poor well-being, whereas c...
Event-related potentials to repeated speech in 9-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder
Atypical neural responses to repeated auditory and linguistic stimuli have been reported both in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their first-degree relatives. Recent work suggests that the younger siblings of children with ASD have atypical event-related potentials (ERPs) to repeated tones at 9 months of age; however, the functional significance is unclear, and it is unknown...

The influence of vitamin D on postpartum relapse and quality of life in pregnant multiple sclerosis patients
In relapsing−remitting MS patients, lower serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with higher relapse risk. In a number of conditions, low vitamin D has been associated with fatigue. Pregnant women are at particular risk for vitamin D insufficiency. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D status is associated with postpartum relapse and quality of life during pregnancy. Forty...
RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions
Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), impairing synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia and resulting in autonomic failure. We investigated whether ...

Corticosterone analgesia is mediated by the spinal production of neuroactive metabolites that enhance GABAergic inhibitory transmission on dorsal horn rat neurons
Corticosterone (CORT) is a glucocorticoid produced by adrenal glands under the control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Circulating CORT can enter the central nervous system and be reduced to neuroactive 3α5α-reduced steroids, which modulate GABAA receptors. In the dorsal spinal cord, GABAergic transmission modulates integration of nociceptive information. It has been shown tha...
Virtual Sensor for Calibration of Thermal Models of Machine Tools
Machine tools are important parts of high-complex industrial manufacturing. Thus, the end product qualitystrictly depends on the accuracy of these machines, but they are prone to deformation caused by their own heat. The deformation needs to be compensated in order to assure accurate production. So an adequate model of the high-dimensional thermal deformation process must be created and paramet...
Affective processing in natural scene viewing: Valence and arousal interactions in eye-fixation-related potentials
Attention is drawn to emotionally salient stimuli. The present study investigates processing of emotionally salient regions during free viewing of emotional scenes that were categorized according to the two-dimensional model comprising of valence (unpleasant, pleasant) and arousal (high, low). Recent studies have reported interactions between these dimensions, indicative of stimulus-evoked appr...
Changes in functional connectivity and GABA levels with long-term motor learning
Learning novel motor skills alters local inhibitory circuits within primary motor cortex (M1) (Floyer-Lea et al., 2006) and changes long-range functional connectivity (Albert et al., 2009). Whether such effects occur with long-term training is less well established. In addition, the relationship between learning-related changes in functional connectivity and local inhibition, and their modulati...