Immunology

Glucagon-reactive Islet-infiltrating CD8 T Cells in NOD Mice
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in pancreatic islets. A number of islet antigens recognized by CD8 T cells that contribute to disease pathogenesis in NOD mice have been identified; however, the antigenic specificities of the majority of the islet-infiltrating cells have yet to be determined. The primary goal of the current stud...


Pregnancy level of estrogen attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in both ovariectomized and pregnant C57BL/6 mice through expansion of Treg and Th2 cells
Pregnancy suppressive effect on autoimmune diseases including Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis may result from high levels of sex steroids such as estrogen and estriol. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of estrogen on MS alleviation. Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35–55. Clinical scores and other relevant param...
Determination of Ribosomal DNA Copy Number and Comparison Among Strains of Coccidioides
The use of PCR-based assays to detect fungi and diagnose fungal infections as well as to monitor fungal organ burden with diseases such as coccidioidomycosis is becoming more common. The target of these assays is frequently one or more of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene subunits. The multicopy nature of this gene affords greater sensitivity over single-copy genes. However, there are few studies r...


Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto and the Closely Related Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8 %), C. ort...
A Chronic Disseminated Dermatophytosis Due to Trichophyton violaceum
A 48-year-old female had presented dandruff and breakable hair for more than 40 years, dry scaly erythema on bilateral palms and feet accompanying with nail destruction for 20 years, and scaling papules on the buttock for 5 years. Direct microscopic examination showed endothrix anthroconidia within broken hair and septate and branched hyphae within skin and nail lesion. Fungal cultures from ...


Rhinovirus Disease in Children Seeking Care in a Tertiary Pediatric Emergency Department
Rhinovirus is the most common cause of viral respiratory tract infections in children. Virologic predictors of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), such as viral load and the presence of another respiratory virus (coinfection), are not well characterized in pediatric outpatients. Mid-nasal turbinate samples were collected from children presenting for care to the Seattle Children's Hospital...
Factors Associated With Retention Among Non-Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth in the HIV Research Network
The transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among youth through high-risk behaviors continues to increase. Retention in Care is associated with positive clinical outcomes and a decrease in HIV transmission risk behaviors. We evaluated the clinical and demographic characteristics of non–perinatally HIV (nPHIV)-infected youth associated with retention 1 year after initiating care...

Combining organophosphate-treated wall linings and long-lasting insecticidal nets fails to provide additional control over long-lasting insecticidal nets alone against multiple insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in Côte d’Ivoire: an experimental hut
Insecticide-treated wall lining (ITWL) is a new concept in malaria vector control. Some Anopheles gambiae populations in West Africa have developed resistance to all the main classes of insecticides. It needs to be demonstrated whether vector control can be improved or resistance managed when non-pyrethroid ITWL is used alone or together with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against multi...
Effect of diclazuril on intestinal morphology and SIgA expression in chicken infected with Eimeria tenella
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), as a vital actor involving in the mucosal immunity, plays a key role in defending a variety of pathogenic infections, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite contacting with the digestive tract mucosa and specially parasitizes chicken caecum, causing a severe form of coccidiosis. Coccidiosis i...

Animal model of human disease with optic neuritis: neuropapillitis in a rat model infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis
Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a food-borne parasitic disease and can cause optic neuritis. Increasing clinical angiostrongyliasis cases with optic neuritis have been reported, but the pathogenesis has not been fully understood until now. Here, we applied rats with A. cantonensis infection as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by the infect...
Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Emperor Penguins ( Aptenodytes forsteri ) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica
In general, the knowledge on parasites infecting Antarctic birds is scarce. The present study intends to extend the knowledge on gastrointestinal parasites of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica. Fecal samples of 50 individual Emperor Penguins were collected at the Atka Bay and analyzed using the sodium-acetate-formaldehyde (SAF) method for the identification of ...

Seasonal Influenza Vaccination during Pregnancy and the Risks of Preterm Delivery and Small for Gestational Age Birth
Influenza vaccination is routinely recommended for pregnant women, yet information on perinatal outcomes is sparse. We investigated the associations between trivalent (seasonal) influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risks of preterm delivery (PTD, live birth ...
Aspirin Use for Primary and Secondary Prevention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Patients
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The use of aspirin for primary and secondary MI prevention in HIV infection has not been extensively studied. We performed a cross-sectional study of 4037 patients infected with HIV and 36 338 demographics-matched control patients in the Partners HealthCare System HIV cohort. We develop...
Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing t...
Autophagy and Burkholderia
Autophagy has become increasingly viewed as an important component of the eukaryotic innate immune system. The elimination of intracellular pathogens by autophagy in mammalian cells (xenophagy) results not only in the degradation of invading bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, but also liberation of metabolites that may have been utilized during pathogen infection, thus promoting cell survi...