Immunology

Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Critically Ill Patients
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested for the treatment of many ailments due to its ability to modulate the immune system and to provide passive immunity to commonly circulating pathogens. Its use as primary and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of conditions affecting critically ill patients is an attractive option, especially when alternative therapy does not exist. The body...


Control of the sheep blowfly in Australia and New Zealand - Are we there yet?
The last 50 years of research into infections in Australia and New Zealand caused by larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, have significantly advanced our understanding of this blowfly and its primary host, the sheep. However, apart from some highly effective drugs it could be argued that no new control methodologies have resulted. This review addresses the major areas of sheep blowfly ...
Virulence of Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from hospital water system and healthcare-associated Legionnaires’ disease in Northern Italy between 2004 and 2009
Worldwide, L. pneumophila sg 1 is the most common agent of Legionnaires’ disease ( 80 to 90% of the reported cases). In contrast, L. pneumophila sg 2–14 account for only 15 to 20% of community-acquired cases, although they account for over 50% of the environmental isolates. The discrepancy between environmental isolates and clinical cases of disease suggested that there are differences in v...


Controlled-release naringin nanoscaffold for osteoporotic bone healing
Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases in the world and results from an imbalance of bone cell functions. In the process of guided bone regeneration, osteoporosis weakens the bonding strength between scaffold and bone. Naringin is evidenced to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone resorption and the aim was to explore methods and benefits of its incorporation. In...
Dental pulp stem cells’ secretome enhances pulp repair processes and compensates TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity
Of this study was to investigate the effects of dental pulp stem cells’ (DPSCs) secretome, expressed through their culture conditioned medium (CM), on biological endpoints related to pulp repair and on TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity. DPSCs cultures were established and characterized for stem cell markers with flow cytometry. CM was collected from DPSCs under serum deprivation conditions (SDC) an...


The use of microRNA by human viruses: lessons from NK cells and HCMV infection
Depending on ethnicity and on social conditions, between 40 and 90 % of the population is infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In immunocompetent patients, the virus may cause an acute disease and then revert to a state of latency, which enables its coexistence with the human host. However, in cases of immunosuppression or in neonatal infections, HCMV can cause serious long-lasting illn...
Salvage combination antifungal therapy for acute invasive aspergillosis may improve outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
A meta-analysis was performed to compare mold-active triazoles or lipid amphotericin B plus an echinocandin to non-echinocandin monotherapy for acute invasive aspergillosis (IA). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and other databases through May 2013 unrestricted by language. We included observational and experimental studies wherein patients with proven or probable IA by EORTC/MSG criteria underwent ...

Association of Helicobacter pylori and iNOS Production by Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Gastric Mucosa in Chronic Gastritis
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic gastritis. With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages are formed in epithelium and lamina propria of the stomach. These cells are capable of secreting a number of active substances, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We examined the rel...
The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma...

The importance of cytokines and autoantibodies in depression
The relationship between depression and immunity has been widely discussed. Cytokines, such as TNF-α play an important role in immune system; these cytokines interact with virtually every pathophysiologic domain relevant to depression, including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and synaptic plasticity. Antibodies have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressi...
Effects of ouabain on cytokine/chemokines levels in an animal model of mania
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and severe psychiatric disorder and despite its importance, little is known about the precise pathophysiology of this disorder. Several studies have reported that inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of BD and that cytokines are altered in these patients. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain (a potent Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor) in rats res...

HLA-class II peptide tetramers vs. allergen-induced proliferation for identification of allergen-specific CD4 T cells
Fluorescence-labeled MHC class II/peptide tetramer complexes are considered as optimal tools to characterize allergen-specific CD4+ T cells, but this technique is restricted to frequently expressed HLA-class II molecules and the knowledge of immunodominant epitopes. In contrast, allergen-stimulated proliferation assessed by CFSE-dilution is less sophisticated and widely applicable. The major mu...
Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches
Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities, however their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evi...
Right Ventricular Geometry and Function in Pulmonary Hypertension: Non-Invasive Evaluation
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease, which still carries a poor prognosis. PH is characterized by a pressure overload on the right ventricle (RV), which develops hypertrophy, followed by a progressive failure. Accordingly, recent evidence showed that RV function has an important prognostic role in patients with PH. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), computed tomograph...
Revisited: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany)
The present study investigated the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Hanover, Northern Germany, in 2010. At the same time the study served as fifth-year-follow-up study for data comparison with 2005. A total of 2100 questing ticks were collected and analysed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with subsequent species different...