Immunology

Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease
Anti-inflammatory cytokines have an important role in disease, tumour and transplant processes. Alterations in the regulation of several cytokines have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory disorders, including IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) [Crohn′s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)]. Cytokine polymorphisms are also known to affect the level of gene expression. Thus, the aim ...


The SDF1α-induced interaction of the adapter proteins Nck and HS1 facilitates actin polymerization and migration in T cells
Nck is an adapter protein that comprises one SH2 domain and three SH3 domains. Nck links receptors and receptor-associated tyrosine kinases or adapter proteins to proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Whereas the SH2 domain binds to phosphorylated receptors or associated phosphoproteins, individual interactions of the SH3 domains with proline-based recognition motifs result in the form...
TFPI inhibits lectin pathway of complement activation by direct interaction with MASP-2
The lectin pathway (LP) of complement has a protective function against invading pathogens. Recent studies have also shown that the LP plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 appears to be crucial in this process. The serpin C1-inhibitor is the major inhibitor of MASP-2. In addition, aprotinin, a Kunitz-type inhibitor, was shown to i...


Peptide selectivity discriminates NK cells from KIR2DL2- and KIR2DL3-positive individuals
Natural killer cells are controlled by peptide selective inhibitory receptors for MHC class I, including the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Despite having similar ligands, KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 confer different levels of protection to infectious disease. To investigate how changes in peptide repertoire may differentially affect NK cell reactivity, NK cells from KIR2DL2 and KIR2...
Gal-3 regulates the capacity of dendritic cells to promote NKT cell-induced liver injury
Galectin-3, an endogenous lectin, exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in various disease conditions. In order to explore the role of galectin-3 in NKT cell-dependent pathology, we induced hepatitis in C57BL/6 wild type and galectin-3 deficient mice by using specific ligand for NKT cells: α-galactosylceramide, glycolipid antigen presented by CD1d. The injection of α-galactosylceramide ...


A systematic review identifies valid comorbidity indices derived from administrative health data
To conduct a systematic review of studies reporting on the development or validation of comorbidity indices using administrative health data and compare their ability to predict outcomes related to comorbidity (ie, construct validity). We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE, until September 2012. After title and abstract screen, relevant articles were selected for ...
Meaningful changes for the Oxford hip and knee scores after joint replacement surgery
To present estimates of clinically meaningful or minimal important changes for the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) after joint replacement surgery. Secondary data analysis of the NHS patient-reported outcome measures data set that included 82,415 patients listed for hip replacement surgery and 94,015 patients listed for knee replacement surgery was performed. Anchor-based...

Downregulation of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis treated with rebamipide eyedrops
Rebamipide eyedrops are approved in Japan for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases also manifest dry eye. Earlier we reported that rebamipide suppressed polyI:C-induced inflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In the current study we examined the effect of rebamipide eyedrops on the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), eosinophil ca...
My 30-year roadmap for pediatric myasthenia gravis in Hong Kong: Searching for international collaboration
Pediatric myasthenia gravis (P-MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), and is rare in children. The roadmap of the research carried out for P-MG in Hong Kong over the past 30 years was reviewed. Currently, there is a lack of epidemiological studies in comparing clinical data or the outcome for people of different ethnic origins. P-MG is more common in Asians, e...

Detection of aquaporin-4 antibody status of Thai patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders using a recombinant Escherichia coli aquaporin-4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Detection of a highly specific autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the serum has been used as a diagnostic marker for NMO. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and validate the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting AQP4 antibody using recombinant AQP4 antigen expr...
Lipocalin-2 Promotes M1 Macrophages Polarization in a Mouse Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a major issue in cardiac transplantation. Inflammatory processes play a major role in myocardial IR injury. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2), which is also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, has multiple functions that include the regulation of cell death/survival, cell migration/invasion, cell differentiation, and iron delivery. In our study, the hearts ...

Stabilization of the ß-hairpin in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein¿ a critical step for infectivity
Formation of a mature core is a crucial event for infectivity of retroviruses such as Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV). The process is triggered by proteolytic cleavage of the polyprotein precursor Gag, which releases matrix, capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid proteins. Once released, CA assembles to form a mature core ? a hexameric lattice protein shell that protects retroviral genomic RNA. Subtle...
The antibacterial effect of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond(R)) skin adhesive
Dermabond® is a tissue adhesive commonly used for wound or surgical incision closure. Its use has previously been associated with a reduction in wound infection, and it has been thought to act as a physical barrier to bacteria accessing the wound. This study aimed to establish whether the Dermabond® adhesive demonstrated any intrinsic antimicrobial properties. Solidified pellets of Derm...
Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis
Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding ma...
Detection and characterization of zoonotic pathogens of free-ranging non-human primates from Zambia
Wildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas. A...