Immunology

Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens
Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindol...


Increase of CD25 expression on bovine neutrophils correlates with disease severity in post-partum and early lactating dairy cows
Polymorph-nuclear neutrophils (PMN) in cattle exhibit unique features when compared to human or murine PMN and are of particular interest concerning the risk of post-partum mammary gland or extra-mammary infections related to the periparturient suppression of neutrophil functions. Former studies could show that effects of IL-2 on innate immune cells such as PMN were mediated by the interleukin-...
Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin
Inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) peptides exhibit ion channel blocking, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities, but currently, no functional roles for bee-derived ICK peptides have been identified. In this study, a bee (Apis cerana) ICK peptide (AcICK) that acts as an antifungal peptide and as an insecticidal venom toxin was identified. AcICK contains an ICK fold that is expressed in the epide...


Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951 bp with an open reading frame of 1884 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1...
Phagocytosis of mycobacteria by zebrafish macrophages is dependent on the scavenger receptor Marco, a key control factor of pro-inflammatory signalling
Scavenger receptors on the cell surface of macrophages play an important role in host defence through their ability to bind microbial ligands and induce phagocytosis. Concurrently, signal transduction pathways are initiated that aid in defence mechanisms against the invading microbe. Here we report on the function of scavenger receptor Marco (Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) duri...


Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the NFIL3/E4BP4 transcription factor of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella
Nfil3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) is an important bZIP transcription factor in the immune response and immune cells' development. Here, we identified the nfil3 gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella; gcNFIL3). The deduced amino acid sequence of gcNFIL3 is 468 residues with a typical bZIP domain. Phylogenetics demonstrated that gcNFIL3 clustered closely with nfil3 of zebrafis...
Age and genetic selection affect auto-immune profiles of chickens
Specificity, antibody isotype distribution and levels, of natural autoantibodies (NAAb) may be potential informative parameters for immune mediated natural disease resistance, immune modulation, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. In a previous study we detected IgM and IgG antibodies to liver antigens in plasma from 1 year old chickens. Auto-immune profiles directed towards liver ant...

Reciprocal interaction between fish TGF-β1 and IL-1β is responsible for restraining IL-1β signaling activity in grass carp head kidney leukocytes
In the present study, we found that recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) simultaneously up-regulated grass carp IL-1β (gcIL-1β) and TGF-β1 (gcTGF-β1) expression via NF-κB and MAPK signaling in grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), promoting us to clarify whether TGF-β1 is an effective antagonist in IL-1β expression and activity. Our results showed that a stimulation of gcIL-1β ...
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine DEAD (Asp–Glu–Ala–Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41)
Dead (Asp–Glu–Ala–Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a member of the DEXDc helicase family, was recently identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in mouse myeloid dendritic cells. In this study, porcine DDX41 (poDDX41) was cloned and its role in the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway was investigated in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. Full-length poDDX41 cDNA encodes 622 amino acid re...

Hibernation induces immune changes in the lung of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)
During hibernation, significant changes occur in the systemic and intestinal immune populations. We found that the lungs of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) also undergo shifts in immune phenotype. Within the population of mononuclear cells, the percentage of T cells increases and the percentage of CD11b/c+ cells decreases in hibernators. E-selectin, which prom...
Isoforms of the CD79 signal transduction component of the macropod B-cell receptor
B cell responses and their concomitant signal transduction pathways are not well understood in marsupial mammals, despite the availability of gene expression data for key immunoglobulin genes and for elements of the CD79a/CD79b heterodimer signalling complex for two model marsupials. broader studies of factors that influence b cell responses are still hampered by a lack of species-specific reag...

The chemokine CCL5 induces selective migration of bovine classical monocytes and drives their differentiation into LPS-hyporesponsive macrophages in vitro
Human and mouse studies indicate distinct roles of selected chemokines for monocyte subset attraction. We therefore analyzed the still unknown sensitivity and response of bovine monocyte subsets toward two monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2, CCL5). Only CCL5 induced a significant Ca2+ influx and migration response in bovine monocytes, with classical and intermediate monocytes being significan...
Effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy in the IPEC cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
While Brazil has had a long-standing policy of free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all in need, the epidemiological impact of ART on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA suppression in this middle-income country has not been well evaluated. We estimate first-line ART effectiveness in a large Brazilian cohort and examine the socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural fa...
The immune tolerant phase of chronic HBV infection: new perspectives on an old concept
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection progresses through distinct disease phases that are strongly associated with patient age. The so-called immune tolerant (IT) phase represents the classical early phase of infection; it is associated with high levels of HBV replication and lack of clinical signs of liver Inflammation. Whether this phase of HBV infection is also associated with immunologi...
Soluble interleukin-6 receptor is elevated during influenza A virus infection and mediates the IL-6 and IL-32 inflammatory cytokine burst
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a major worldwide public health problem. However, the factors involved in mediating the inflammatory response to this infection and their relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we show that IAV infection stimulates the expression of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), a multifunctional protein involved in IL-6 signaling. Interestingly, sIL-6R expressi...