Immunology

United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland renal physicians’ experiences of patients undergoing renal transplants abroad: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey
Due to on-going poor availability of organs, increasingly patients from developed countries are reported to be travelling abroad for renal transplants. We aimed to assess the extent and characteristics of this trend across the UK and Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire-based cross sectional survey. 397 renal consultants from 33 hospitals with renal units across the UK and the Republic of Irela...


Combining cattle and wound-derived synthetic attractants, POC and Bezzilure B, for sampling Chrysomya bezziana in Indonesia
The myiasis fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an obligate parasite of body orifices and unnatural openings or wounds of vertebrates. It is a major pest of livestock and responsible for economic losses throughout the Old World. Two chemical lures were tested in the present study to assess their effectiveness at trapping Ch. bezziana. Bezzilure B contains a synthetic l...
Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) excretions and secretions have potent antibacterial activity
The most important mechanism for combating infection using larval therapy depends on larval excretions and secretions (ES). The present work was aimed at evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) ES antibacterial activity in six bacterial strains (three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and comparing this to the effect of Lucilia sericata-derived ES. Antibacterial acti...


Population studies of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia, emphasis on cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and wing morphometric analysis
Tsetse flies, like many insects, use pheromones for inter- and intra-specific communication. Several of their pheromones are cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are perceived by contact at close range. We hypothesized that for a successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), along with proper identification of target area and target species, the target tsetse populations and th...
Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui among humans and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR
This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helm...


Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control costs across diverse settings: A systematic review
The control and eventual elimination of neglected tropical disease (NTD) requires the expansion of interventions such as mass drug administration (MDA), vector control, diagnostic testing, and effective treatment. The purpose of this paper is to present the evidence base for decision-makers on the cost and cost-effectiveness of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment,...
The immunomodulation of a novel tumor necrosis factor (CgTNF-1) in oyster Crassostrea gigas
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is one of the most important cytokines involved in many processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate. In the present study, a new tumor necrosis factor with a typical TNF domain was identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgTNF-1). CgTNF-1 shared low sequence identity and similarity with the TNF superfamily members from other vertebrate and invertebrate. ...

Four Types of Barriers to Adherence of Antiretroviral Therapy are Associated with Decreased Adherence Over Time
The objectives of this study were to understand how different types of barriers to adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were related and their differential impact on objectively measured adherence over time. Data from 151 patients taking ART were used to describe four sub-types of self-reported adherence barriers: medication and health concerns (MHC), stigma (S), family responsibilities (F...
IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population. Relationship with tick bites, atopy, and cat ownership
The carbohydrate alpha-gal epitope is present in many animal proteins, including those of red meat and animal immunoglobulins, such as cat IgA. Systemic anaphylaxis to the alpha-gal epitope has recently been described. To investigate and compare the prevalence of alpha-gal-specific(s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) Europe...

The changing pattern of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine uptake in egg allergic children
Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infectious diseases which may be prevented by the administration of the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR) to young children. Since 1996 the UK Department of Health (DoH) recommends that all children undergo a two dose MMR immunisation schedule.1 MMR immunisation uptake rates in the UK2 have varied significantly over the past 15 years, from 91% of childre...
Comparison of comorbidity classification methods for predicting outcomes in a population-based cohort of adults with HIV infection
We compared the John’s Hopkins’ Aggregated Diagnosis Groups (ADGs), which are derived using inpatient and outpatient records, with the hospital-record derived Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidity indices for predicting outcomes in HIV-infected patients. We used a validated algorithm to identify HIV-infected adults (n=14,313) in Ontario, Canada, and randomly divided the sample into derivatio...

Spinal cord injury, immunodepression, and antigenic challenge
The inability to effectively control microbial infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Available evidence from clinical studies as well as animal models of SCI demonstrate that increased susceptibility to infection is derived from disruption of central nervous system (CNS) communication with the host immune system that ultimat...
Remifentanil Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Downregulating the NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Remifentanil significantly represses cell immune responses and influences neutrophil migration through endothelial cell monolayers. The present study determines the beneficial effects of remifentanil and the mechanisms by which it attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Rats were intratracheally instilled with 2 mg/kg LPS to induce ALI. showed that remifentanil cou...
Invasive Geotrichum clavatum Fungal Infection in an Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patient: A Case Report and Review
Invasive Geotrichum clavatum fungal infections are extremely rare and unusual, occurring nearly exclusively in patients experiencing prolonged neutropenia during the treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia. Several groups of cases of fatal G. clavatum infection were reported in France between 2011 and 2012, but the ecological niche has not yet been identified. We report a case of a 32-year-old pa...
Nonprescription Racemic Epinephrine for Asthma
Inhaled racepinephrine (RE) (Asthmanefrin) became available in September 2012 as a nonprescription treatment for bronchospasm based on a 1986 US Food and Drug Administration rule. It contains 11.25 mg RE in 0.5 mL and is delivered by a handheld electronic nebulizer. In 2001, we conducted a pilot study that was never published. Now that the product is promoted as a replacement for epinephrine ch...