Gastroenterology

The Effects of Baclofen for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Baclofen can relieve gastroesophageal reflux-related symptoms in healthy subjects and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients by reducing the incidence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of baclofen for the treatment of GERD. Methods. We systematically searched randomized controlled trials published prior to N...


New ghrelin agonist, HM01 alleviates constipation and L-dopa-delayed gastric emptying in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease
Constipation and L-dopa-induced gastric dysmotility are common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the novel ghrelin agonist, HM01 influence on GI motor dysfunctions in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats. HM01 pharmacological profiles were determined in vitro and in vivo in rats. We assessed changes in fecal output and water content, and gastric emptying (GE...
The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms
For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the dia...


The present and the future in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease
Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. In celiac disease, adaptive and innate immune activation results in intestinal damage and a wide range of clinical manifestations. In the past, celiac disease was thought to result in signs and symptoms solely related to the gastrointestinal tract. Now, more than half of the adult population pre...
TFF2 deficiency exacerbates weight loss and alters immune cell and cytokine profiles in DSS colitis and this can not be rescued by wild type bone marrow
TFF2 is a member of a tripartite family of small proteins, produced by the stomach and the colon. Recombinant TFF2, when applied intra-rectally in a rodent model of hapten colitis, both hastens mucosal healing and reduces inflammatory indices. Additionally, TFF2 is expressed in immune organs, supporting a potential immunomodulatory and reparative role in the bowel. In this study we confirm that...


Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon
Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells (EECs), although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were imm...
Common variants of GIP are associated with visceral fat accumulation in Japanese adults
Animal studies have demonstrated that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GIP receptor (GIPR) contribute to the etiology of obesity. In humans, genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GIPR gene that are strongly associated with body mass index (BMI); however, it is not clear whether genetic variations in the GIP gene are i...

Effectiveness and safety of ferric carboxymaltose treatment in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal diseases
The treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children with inflammatory bowel disease is a particular challenge and often insufficient. Absorption of orally given iron may be impaired by intestinal inflammation and treatment with oral iron may aggravate intestinal inflammation. This retrospective study is the first to describe the use of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in the pediatric se...
A cause to consider for chronic unresolving diarrhea
A 36-year-old male who carried a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome presented with chronic watery diarrhea and was found to have hepatomegaly on physical exam. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with lesions suspicious for metastatic disease. A colonoscopy revealed a polypoid lesion in the terminal ileum, which was biopsied, revealing a neuroendocrine tumor ...

MELD score and antibiotics use are predictors of length of stay in patients hospitalized with hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a significant burden to the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing the hospital length of stay among patients hospitalized with HE. A data warehouse query was performed to identify 316 patients with a first hospitalization during which HE occurred, between April 2010 and February 2012. Baseline and hospitalization cha...
The severity of irritable bowel syndrome or the presence of fibromyalgia influencing the perception of visceral and somatic stimuli
Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a frequent comorbidity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) patients with a higher functional bowel disorder severity index (FBDSI). We tested the possibility that mild to severe IBS patients without FMS would have a graduated visceral and somatic perception, and the presence of FMS would further enhance somatic, but conversely attenuate visceral perception. Our aim ...

Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, end...
Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China
To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and a...
Age-dependent expression of duodenal cytochrome B561, divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin 1 and hephaestin in the duodenum of rats
The body's requirement for iron is different at different developmental stages. However, the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent iron metabolism are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the expression of iron transport proteins in the duodenum of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats at five different age stages. Male SD rats at postnatal week (PNW) 1, 3, 12, 44, and 88 were employed...
Incidence of natural resistance mutations in naïve chronic hepatitis B patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Studies focused on the naturally occurring resistance mutation rate in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients have set off a furious dispute. We conduct this meta-analysis to appraise the pooled incidence of spontaneous hepatitis B virus (HBV) resistance mutations worldwide and its distribution. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and China National K...