Gastroenterology

Animal Models of Infant Short Bowel Syndrome: Translational Relevance and Challenges
Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption, and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there i...


PPARalpha autocrine regulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in guinea pig antral mucous cells: NO and cGMP accumulation
In antral mucous cells, acetylcholine (ACh, 1 µM) activates Ca2+-regulated exocytosis, consisting of a peak in exocytotic events that declines rapidly (initial phase) followed by a second slower decline (late phase) lasting during ACh stimulation. GW7647 (a PPARα agonist) enhanced the ACh-stimulated initial phase, and GW6471 (a PPARα antagonist) abolished the GW7647-induced-en...
Changes in meal composition and duration affect postprandial endothelial function in healthy humans
Endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), predicts cardiovascular events, and is impaired postprandially. To evaluate the effects of changes in composition or duration of ingestion of a meal, which slows gastric emptying and/or small intestinal nutrient exposure, on postprandial endothelial function. 12 healthy subjects (6 male, 6 female; 33 ± 6 years) were each s...


Dysregulated hepatic expression of glucose transporters in chronic disease : contribution of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase to hepatic glucose uptake
Insulin resistance is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of soluble Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (sVAP-1) are also increased in these patients. The amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. We aimed to document human hepatocellular expression of GLUTs and t...
Postoperative prognosis of pancreatic cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis: a multicenter study on 822 patients
The prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph node (PALN) has been reported to be extremely poor. In general, PALN metastasis has been considered as a contraindication for pancreatic resection. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the postoperative prognostic value of PALN metastasis in pancreatic cancer and to determine the validity of pancreatic surgery. Ret...


The Association Between County-Level Surgeon Density and Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Mortality
Surgical resection plays an integral part in the curative treatment of esophageal (EC) and gastric cancer (GC). The impact of the allocation of surgeons at the county level on these cancer outcomes is unclear. Our aims were to examine the effect of surgeon density on EC and GC mortality and to compare the relative roles of thoracic and general surgeons on outcomes. Using county-level data from ...
Management of sub-5 mm rectal carcinoids with lymph node metastases
Minute (...

Comparative Effectiveness of Pyruvate Kinase M2 in Bile, Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9, and Biliary Brushings in Diagnosing Malignant Biliary Strictures
The role of M2-PK (pyruvate kinase) in bile has not been studied in comparison with brushings and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 in the diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of biliary M2-PK with cytology and serum CA 19-9In this prospective cross-sectional study, bile was aspirated in 74 patients (discovery and validation cohort) undergoing endoscopic re...
Metabolic factors accelerate colorectal adenoma recurrence
Metabolic factors have been reported to increase the prevalence of colorectal adenomas, however, whether metabolic factors might also accelerate the recurrence after removal of adenomas has not yet been discussed. In this retrospective multicenter study, we clarified the risk factors for adenoma recurrence focusing on metabolic factors. We analyzed the medical records of 43,195 patients who had...

Long-term evaluation of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain: pooled analysis of extension phases of two Phase III trials
While opioids provide effective analgesia, opioid-induced constipation (OIC) can severely impact quality of life and treatment compliance. This pooled analysis evaluated the maintenance of efficacy and safety during long-term treatment with combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Patients (N = 474) received open-label OXN ...
Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying
In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 (14C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope (13C) has been introduced to labe...

Determinants of Repeat Curative Intent Surgery in Colorectal Liver Metastasis
Following curative intent surgery (CIS) for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), repeat CIS for recurrence improves survival. The factors associated with repeat CIS are not widely reported. An institutional database (January 2002–December 2012) was reviewed to evaluate factors influencing repeat CIS. One hundred sixty-three patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) underwent successful ...
Therapeutic Management and Outcome of Locoregional Recurrence After Curative Colorectal Cancer Therapy—a Single-Center Analysis
Locoregional tumor recurrence after curative therapy for colorectal cancer is therapeutically challenging and associated with poor prognosis. Goal of this single-center study was to analyze patients with locoregional recurrence with regard to therapeutic strategies and outcome for colon and rectal cancer each. Charts of all patients surgically treated for colorectal cancer in the period from 20...
Hepatic Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Pancreatitis
A case of pancreatitis secondary to a hepatic hydatid cyst is illustrated together with its preoperative imaging and intraoperative appearance. Cystobiliary communication is a common complication of large hydatid cysts, and episodes of recurrent pancreatitis resulting from passage of cyst contents down the biliary tract are rarely described. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, and s...
Defining the Role of Adjuvant External Beam Radiotherapy on Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater
The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of ampullary carcinoma (AC) remains unclear. We hypothesized that adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) does not improve survival following resection for AC. The SEER database was queried for patients with non-metastatic AC who underwent surgery (S) from 2004 to 2010. Propensity score (PS) modeling was applied to create balanced cohorts of patients that w...