Endocrinology

Molecular Signatures Differentiate Immune States in Type 1 Diabetic Families
Mechanisms associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) development remain incompletely defined. Using a sensitive array-based bioassay where patient plasma is used to induce transcriptional responses in healthy leukocytes, we previously reported disease-specific, partially interleukin (IL)-1–dependent signatures associated with preonset and recent onset (RO) T1D relative to unrelated healthy co...


Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene (FTO) Is Linked to Higher Plasma Levels of the Hunger Hormone Ghrelin and Lower Serum Levels of the Satiety Hormone Leptin in Older Adults
The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. Using cross-sectional data from 985 older people (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured ...
Neuroretinal Dysfunction With Intact Blood-Retinal Barrier and Absent Vasculopathy in Type 1 Diabetes
It is unknown whether independent neural damage may occur in the pre-/absent vascular diabetic retinopathy (DR). To exclude vasculopathy, it is important to measure the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). This cross-sectional study addressed this problem in type 1 diabetic patients with normal ocular fundus and absent breakdown of the BRB (confirmed with vitreous fluorometry). These w...


Retinal Vessel Calibers Predict Long-term Microvascular Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987)
Diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy cause significant morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes, even though improvements in treatment modalities delay the appearance and reduce the severity of these complications. To prevent or further delay the onset, it is necessary to better understand common underlying pathogenesis and to discover preclinical biomarkers of these complication...
Exendin-4, a GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Attenuates Prostate Cancer Growth
Recently, pleiotropic benefits of incretin therapy beyond glycemic control have been reported. Although cancer is one of the main causes of death in diabetic patients, few reports describe the anticancer effects of incretin. Here, we examined the effect of the incretin drug exendin (Ex)-4, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on prostate cancer. In human prostate cancer tissue obtained from patie...


Prospective Associations of Vitamin D Status With beta-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Glycemia: The Impact of Parathyroid Hormone Status
Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between low vitamin D (25-OH-D) and impaired glucose homeostasis. In this context, we hypothesized that combined assessment of 25-OH-D with its regulator parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be required for optimal evaluation of the impact of vitamin D status on glucose metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the prospective associations of...
Nucleotides Released From Palmitate-Challenged Muscle Cells Through Pannexin-3 Attract Monocytes
Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not amenable to the specific investigation ...

Ultraviolet Radiation Suppresses Obesity and Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Vitamin D in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
The role of vitamin D in curtailing the development of obesity and comorbidities such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes has received much attention recently. However, clinical trials have failed to conclusively demonstrate the benefits of vitamin D supplementation. In most studies, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] decreases with increasing BMI above normal weight. These lo...
Coinfusion of Low-Dose GLP-1 and Glucagon in Man Results in a Reduction in Food Intake
Obesity is a growing epidemic, and current medical therapies have proven inadequate. Endogenous satiety hormones provide an attractive target for the development of drugs that aim to cause effective weight loss with minimal side effects. Both glucagon and GLP-1 reduce appetite and cause weight loss. Additionally, glucagon increases energy expenditure. We hypothesized that the combination of bot...

Heterozygous SOD2 Deletion Impairs Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion, but Not Insulin Action, in High-Fat-Fed Mice
Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to insulin resistance and islet dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a primary defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin action, wild-type (sod2+/+) and heterozygous knockout mice (sod2+/–) were fed ...
Circadian Secretion of the Intestinal Hormone GLP-1 by the Rodent L Cell
Peripheral clocks are known to modulate circadian patterns of insulin secretion. GLP-1 is an incretin hormone produced by the intestinal L cell that acts as a link between the gut and pancreatic β-cell. Herein, we demonstrate the existence of a diurnal rhythm in GLP-1 secretory responses to an oral glucose load in rats, with increased release immediately preceding the normal feeding period...

White Matter Integrity Disruptions Associated With Cognitive Impairments in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a twofold increased risk of dementia and can affect many cognitive abilities, but its underlying cause is still unclear. In this study, we used a combination of a battery of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to explore how T2DM affects white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in 38 T2DM patients and 34 age-, sex-, and...
Dapagliflozin as Monotherapy or Combination Therapy in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: an Open-Label Study
Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dapagliflozin is effective and well tolerated over 12–24 weeks in Japanese patients with T2DM. In this study, the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy and combina...
Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of develo...
Enteral supplementation with glutamine, fiber, and oligosaccharide modulates incretin and glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion
A dietary supplementation product enriched with glutamine, dietary fiber and oligosaccharide (GFO) is widely applied for enteral nutrition support in Japan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GFO ingestion on secretion of incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We carried out a cross-over ...