Endocrinology

Leptin Effects on the Regenerative Capacity of Human Periodontal Cells
Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supportin...


Efficacy and Safety of the Once-Weekly GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Albiglutide Versus Sitagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Impairment: A Randomized Phase III Study
To evaluate weekly subcutaneous albiglutide versus daily sitagliptin in renally impaired patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequately controlled glycemia on a regimen of diet and exercise and/or oral antihyperglycemic medications. In this Phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, 52-week study, the primary study end point was HbA1c change from baseline at week 26 in patients with rena...
The Look AHEAD Trial: Bone Loss at Four-Year Follow-Up in Type 2 Diabetes
To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. This randomized controlled trial of intensive weight loss compared an ILI with a diabetes support and education (DSE) group among 1,309 overweight or obese subject...


Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure Effects on Renal Outcomes in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT)
Blood pressure (BP) control for renal protection is essential for patients with type 2 diabetes. Our objective in this analysis of Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) data was to learn whether on-study systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) affected renal outcomes measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The VADT w...
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is more efficacious than insulin glargine for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
To compare the reported efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-l receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin glargine (IGlar) for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov were carried out. References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. GLP-1RA showed equivalent or superior efficacy...


Evaluation of Different Obesity Indices as Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population
To compare correlation coefficients between anthropometric indices and blood glucose level; and to determine optimal cutoff points of obesity indices in a Chinese population. 2419 males and 5140 females participated in this study in Changchun city. Weight, height, WC (waist circumference) and hip circumference were measured; and BMI (body mass index), WHtR (waist height ratio), WHR (waist hip r...
Changing Relative Contribution of Abdominal Obesity and a Family History of Diabetes on Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men and Women Aged 30–49 Years from 2001 to 2010
We investigated the change in the relative impact of a family history of diabetes (FH) and abdominal obesity on diabetes mellitus (DM) over a 10-year period in Korea. We analyzed data from the 2001, 2005, and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that were weighted to represent the entire Korean population in each year. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to ex...

Detection rate of FNA cytology in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a meta-analysis
The early detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can improve patient prognosis, because histologic stage and patient age at diagnosis are highly relevant prognostic factors. As a consequence, delay in the diagnosis and/or incomplete surgical treatment should correlate with a poorer prognosis for patients. Few papers have evaluated the specific capability of fine needle aspiration cytolo...
Rectal Sensitivity in Diabetes Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis
In a clinical setting, diabetic autonomic complications (cardiac, gastrointestinal, urogenital, etc.) are often handled as separate entities. We investigated rectal sensitivity to heat, mechanical distension, and electrical stimulations in 20 patients with diabetes and symptoms of gastroparesis, to evaluate the extent of visceral neuronal damage. Furthermore, to evaluate the relation between th...

Real Life Cancer Comorbidity in Greek Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Followed Up at a Single Diabetes Center: An Unappreciated New Diabetes Complication
We determined cancer comorbidity in patients with diabetes followed up at a single Greek academic clinic and investigated the potential related factors. Cancer comorbidity was prospectively recorded for all patients with type 2 (T2DM, ) or type 1 (T1DM, ) diabetes of at least 10-year duration examined during one year. Patient characteristics, diabetes age of onset, duration, treatment, control,...
Underwater trauma causes a long-term specific increase in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the ventral CA1 of the hippocampus
The pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is regularly expressed in the hippocampal neurons, but its role in emotional trauma is not known. Here we show that a single acute stress caused by a near-drowning experience results in heightened anxiety-like behavior one month after the trauma. Biochemical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus revealed decrea...

Perforin is a Novel Immune Regulator of Obesity Related Insulin Resistance
Obesity related insulin resistance is associated with an influx of pathogenic T cells into visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but the mechanisms regulating lymphocyte balance in such tissues are unknown. Here we describe an important role for the immune cytotoxic effector molecule, perforin, in regulating this process. Perforin-deficient mice (Prf1null) show early increased body weight and adiposit...
Pancreastatin-dependent inflammatory signaling mediates obesity-induced insulin resistance
Chromogranin A knockout (Chga-KO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity despite obesity. Here we probed the role of the Chromogranin A-derived peptide pancreastatin (PST: CHGA273-301), by investigating the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on insulin sensitivity of these mice. We found that on a high fat diet (HFD), Chga-KO mice (KO-DIO) remain more insulin sensitive than wild-type DIO (...
Genetic evidence for a normal-weight "metabolically obese" phenotype linking insulin resistance, hypertension, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes
The mechanisms that predispose to hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of normal weight are poorly understood. In contrast, in monogenic primary lipodystrophy – a reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue – it is clear that it is adipose dysfunction that causes severe insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, coronary artery disease and ty...
Motivation, effort and life circumstances as predictors of foot ulcers and amputations in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
To investigate the predictive value of both patients’ motivation and effort in their management of Type 2 diabetes and their life circumstances for the development of foot ulcers and amputations. This study was based on the Diabetes Care in General Practice study and Danish population and health registers. The associations between patient motivation, effort and life circumstances and foot ulc...