Endocrinology

The importance of the one carbon cycle nutritional support in human male fertility: a preliminary clinical report
Sperm chromatin structure is often impaired; mainly due to oxidative damage. Antioxidant treatments do not consistently produce fertility improvements and, when given at high doses, they might block essential oxidative processes such as chromatin compaction. This study was intended to assess the effect on male sub-fertility of a pure one carbon cycle nutritional support without strong antioxida...


A Very Low Carbohydrate, Low Saturated Fat Diet for Type 2 Diabetes Management: A Randomized Trial
To comprehensively compare the effects of a very low carbohydrate, high unsaturated/low saturated fat diet (LC) to a high-unrefined carbohydrate, low fat diet (HC) on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Obese adults (n = 115, BMI 34.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2, age 58 ± 7 years) with T2DM were randomized to a hypocaloric LC diet (14% carbohy...
Early Atherosclerosis Relates to Urinary Albumin Excretion and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT)
The origins of cardiovascular and renal disease in type 1 diabetes begin during childhood. We aimed to evaluate carotid (cIMT) and aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and urinary albumin excretion in adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT). A total of 406 adolescents with ...


Insulin Sensitivity Is an Important Determinant of Renal Health in Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and is a major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity is an important determinant of renal health in adults with type 2 diabetes, but limited data exist in adolescents. We hypothesized that measured insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate [GIR]) would be associated with early markers of DN ...
Falling Insulin Requirements Are Associated With Adverse Obstetric Outcomes in Women With Preexisting Diabetes
To investigate the clinical significance of falling insulin requirements in women with preexisting or overt diabetes in pregnancy. A retrospective review of 139 pregnancies was conducted in women, with preexisting diabetes, delivering between January 2010 and January 2013. Women with falling insulin requirements of 15% or more from the peak total daily dose in late pregnancy were considered cas...


Compartmentalized acyl-CoA metabolism in skeletal muscle regulates systemic glucose homeostasis
Impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to switch between the oxidation of fatty acid (FA) and glucose is linked to disordered metabolic homeostasis. To understand how muscle FA oxidation affects systemic glucose, we studied mice with a skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (ACSL1). ACSL1 deficiency caused a 91% loss of ACSL specific activity and 60-85% decreases ...
GLP-1 receptor activation modulates appetite- and reward-related brain areas in humans
Gut-derived hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety leading to decreases in food intake and bodyweight. We hypothesized that food intake reduction following GLP-1 receptor activat...

Adiponectin stimulates autophagy and reduces oxidative stress to enhance insulin sensitivity during high fat diet feeding in mice
Numerous studies have characterized the anti-diabetic effects of adiponectin yet the precise cellular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, in particular changes in autophagy, require further clarification. In the current study we used high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance in wild type (wt) or adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) mice ± adiponectin replenishment. Temporal analysi...
Metformin supports the antidiabetic effect of a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor by suppressing endogenous glucose production in diabetic mice
Combined use of metformin and a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2I) is a promising treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. The mechanism by which combination treatment provides better glycemic control than metformin or SGLT2I monotherapy remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the physiological mechanism, by which both compounds lower blood glucose concentrations in diabetic m...

Stress exposure prior to fear acquisition interacts with estradiol status to alter recall of fear extinction in humans
Classical fear acquisition and extinction are important models for the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are at a higher risk for PTSD than men. Levels of circulating 17-β estradiol (E2) in women have been linked to deficits in fear extinction and extinction recall. In PTSD, fear learning coincides with acute traumatic stress. Howev...
Effects of glucose and blood pressure control on diabetic kidney disease in old patients with type 2 diabetes
We determined the influence of age on the effects of glucose and blood pressure control on diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 721 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 41-85 years and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >=30 mL/ [min . 1.73 m2], were enrolled in this study between August 2001 and December 2002. All participants were followed up at...

Illness Beliefs Predict Self-Care Behaviours in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Prospective Study
Patients’ illness beliefs are known to be influential determinants of self-care behaviours in many chronic conditions. In a prospective observational study we examined their role in predicting foot self-care behaviours in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Patients (n=169) were recruited from outpatient podiatry clinics. Clinical and demographic factors, illness beliefs and foot self-care be...
Study to assess whether waist circumference and changes in serum glucose and lipid profile are independent variables for the CETP gene
To observe the relationship among genes, obesity and the changes in serum glucose and lipid profile to assess whether obesity-related disease results from genes and/or obesity. Correlations among serum glucose, lipids, waist circumference (WC), and Taq1B, I405V, and D442G polymorphisms of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...
Patterns and determinants of new first-line antihyperglycaemic drug use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
We evaluated the patterns and determinants that influence the selection, timing and duration of first-line antihyperglycaemic drug (AHD) treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in Germany, focusing specifically on treatment-naive AHD initiators. Pharmacy dispensing claims data were linked with a cohort of patients newly enrolled in a German Disease Management Program for type 2 diabetes (DMP...
Hemoglobin A1c, comorbid conditions and all-cause mortality in older patients with diabetes: A retrospective 9-year cohort study
To examine whether hemoglobin A1c levels and comorbid conditions are related to all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes receiving continuous care for 9 years. In patients with comorbid congestive heart failure (CHF), we test for ‘reverse epidemiology,’ or whether greater HbA1c values are associated with lower risk of mortality. The population for this longitudi...