Endocrinology

Coronary microvascular dysfunction in overt diabetic cardiomyopathy
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by microvascular disease and interstitial fibrosis, which lead to progressive heart failure; however, its pathogenesis remains uncertain. Perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been proven efficient to detect subclinical myocardial perfusion reserve abnormalities in context of diabetes type 1 in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease. ...


Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and their effect on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis function
The use of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoids for reducing pain and inflammation in patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory arthropathies is widespread among primary care physicians, specialists, and non-specialists in the United States. Injectable glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties which can be effective in improving clinical pa...
The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene in relation to obesity and metabolic phenotypes in a Taiwanese population
Obesity is considered as an important public health problem in the world. Although the association of a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1801282 (Pro12Ala), in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene with obesity has been reported in various populations, these data are not conclusive. This study aimed to reassess whether the PPARG rs1801282 SNP is linked ...


Mutational analysis of the genes encoding RFRP-3, the human ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, and its receptor (GPR147) in patients with GnRH-dependent pubertal disorders
RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), the ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, and its receptor GPR147 have been recently identified in the human hypothalamus, and their roles on the regulation of reproductive axis has been interrogated. Our aim was to investigate if the presence of variants in the genes encoding human RFRP-3 (NPVF gene) and its receptor, GPR147 (NPFFR1 gene), is as...
Novel metabolic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease
Although important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are well known, advances in research might faciliatate improved risk stratification of patients. This Review discusses the latest developments in metabolic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, including lipoproteins, homocysteine, calcium metabolism and glycaemic markers. It also discusses whether these biomarkers' associations w...


Dyslipidaemia: Cardiovascular prevention—end of the road for niacin?
The recently published HPS2–THRIVE study has shown that the addition of extended release niacin to statin therapy in patients with well-controlled levels of LDL cholesterol does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and might even increase harm. Consequently, the use of niacin to increase levels of HDL cholesterol is not recommended.
Reproductive endocrinology: Revisiting ovulation induction in PCOS
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Many clinicians focus on the use of assisted reproductive technologies other than medical induction of ovulation. A new study demonstrating that the aromatase inhibitor letrozole is superior to clomiphene citrate (the current first-line therapy) for ovulation induction in women with PCOS returns attention to this area.

Fsh and Lh direct conserved and specific pathways during flatfish semicystic spermatogenesis
The current view of the control of spermatogenesis by Fsh and Lh in non-mammalian vertebrates is largely based on studies carried out in teleosts with cystic and cyclic spermatogenesis. Much less is known concerning the specific actions of gonadotropins during semicystic germ cell development, a type of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are released into the tubular lumen where they transform...
Inhibition of HDAC3 promotes ligand-independent PPARgamma activation by protein acetylation
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor whose activation is dependent on a ligand. PPAR activation by exogenous ligands, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), is a strategy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus for the improvement of insulin sensitivity. In addition to a ligand, PPAR function is also regulated by posttranslational modifications, such as...

Activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 improves hepatic steatosis through a p38-dependent pathway
Hepatic steatosis is highly correlated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Although, it has been demonstrated that activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) by agonists showed benefits for the improvement of diabetes, the effects of FFAR1 agonists on hepatic steatosis were unknown. In this study, a high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis animal model was utilized to evaluate the ...
Activation of gill Ca2+-sensing receptor as a protective pathway to reduce Ca2+-induced cytotoxicity
The expression of the Ca2+-sensing receptor (Casr) in the endocrine gland known as the corpuscle of Stannius (CS) regulates the secretion of the hypocalcemic hormone stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) to inhibit gill Ca2+ uptake. Although numerous studies have reported the branchial expression of Casr and Stc1, the functions of these proteins in gills have not been elucidated yet. On the basis of recent fi...

Inhibition of leptin-induced vascular extracellular matrix remodelling by adiponectin
Vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which is the result of disruption in the balance of ECM synthesis and degradation, induces vessel fibrosis and thereby leads to hypertension. Leptin is known to promote tissue fibrosis, while adiponectin has recently been demonstrated to be anti-fibrogenic in tissue fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the leptin-antagonist function of a...
Noncoding RNAs and the control of hormonal signaling via nuclear receptor regulation
Despite its identification over 100 years ago, new discoveries continue to add to the complexity of the regulation of the endocrine system. Today the nuclear receptors (NRs) that play such a pivotal role in the extensive communication networks of hormones and gene expression remain an area of intense research. By orchestrating core processes, from metabolism to organismal development, the gene ...
Transcriptional coregulators: emerging roles of SRC family of coactivators in disease pathology
Transcriptional coactivators have evolved as an important new class of functional proteins that participate with virtually all transcription factors and nuclear receptors (NRs) to intricately regulate gene expression in response to a wide variety of environmental cues. Recent findings have highlighted that coactivators are important for almost all biological functions, and consequently, genetic...
Role of G-proteins in the differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes
Herein, we review the regulation of differentiation of the growth plate chondrocytes by G-proteins. In connection with this, we summarize the current knowledge regarding each family of G-protein α subunit, specifically, Gαs, Gαq/11, Gα12/13, and Gαi/o. We discuss different mechanisms involved in chondrocyte differentiation downstream of G-proteins and different G-p...