Endocrinology

Clinical Practice Patterns in the Assessment and Management of Low Testosterone in Men: An International Survey of Endocrinologists
To document current practices in the approach to low testosterone in older men. Given that recommendations are based on low-level evidence, we hypothesized that there would be a wide variability in clinical practice patterns. Members of all major endocrine and andrological societies were invited to participate in a web-based survey of the diagnostic work-up and management of a hypothetical inde...


Obstructive sleep apnoea, insulin resistance and adipocytokines
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with multiple cardiometabolic abnormalities. Obesity is considered a major risk factor for the development of OSA and it is also an established risk factor for insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic disorders. The enigma remains whether OSA has any causal role in the adverse metabolic profile, independent of or beyond that due to obesity. Sleep...
Distinguishing primary from secondary Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (SRD5B1, AKR1D1) deficiency by urinary steroid analysis
Deficiency of Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (5β-reductase), a bile acid synthesis disorder, presents findings of neonatal cholestasis and hyper-3-oxo-Δ4 bile aciduria. The 5β-reductase enzyme participates in not only bile acid synthesis but also hepatic steroid metabolism. Deficiency of 5β-reductase includes 2 types: primary deficiency, with an SRD5B1 gene mutation; and secondary deficienc...


Lack of impact of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and salt intake on insulin resistance and limb blood flow
We postulated the mechanism for the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and insulin sensitivity might relate to changes in blood flow regulation. We studied the association of this polymorphism with insulin action, and insulin-mediated changes in limb blood flow (LBF), under conditions of high and low salt intake. We also studied ef...
Carbimazole inhibits TNF-¿ expression in Fat-induced hypothyroidism
The effect of the carbimazole on expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) in liver, was investigated in an experimental model of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. The HFD (orally given for 4?months) induced TNF-? in liver tissue along with raised serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol and high TSH (62%) In carbimazole (1?mg/100gbw) treatment, the induction of TNF-? was significantly inhibit...


Body composition in adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: effects of metformin
The aim of this study was to measure the body composition in adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and to explore the effect of metformin therapy on the various components of body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. This was an observational study consisted of 51 newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes on 1000?mg metformin twice daily for 6?months. The ...
Coronary Artery Calcification in Obese Youth: What Are the Phenotypic and Metabolic Determinants?
Obesity in adolescence has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease in adulthood. This study evaluated subclinical atherosclerosis in obese youth and the underlying risk factors. Ninety obese adolescents (37 normal glucose tolerant, 27 prediabetes, and 26 type 2 diabetes) underwent evaluation of coronary artery calcifications (CACs) by electron beam computed tomography, ao...

Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Black Women's Health Study: Does Adult BMI Play a Mediating Role?
To assess the association of birth weight with incident type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of obesity, in a large cohort of U. S. black women. The Black Women’s Health Study is an ongoing prospective study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CI for categories of birth weight (very low birth weight [...
The Lifetime Cost of Diabetes and Its Implications for Diabetes Prevention
To assess the cost implications of diabetes prevention, it is important to know the lifetime medical cost of people with diabetes relative to those without. We derived such estimates using data representative of the U. S. national population. We aggregated annual medical expenditures from the age of diabetes diagnosis to death to determine lifetime medical expenditure. Annual medical expenditur...

Different Associations of Diabetes With beta-Cell Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance Among Obese and Nonobese Chinese Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
To examine the relative contributions of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance to postpartum diabetes risk among obese and nonobese women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional survey 1–5 years after 1,263 women who had GDM gave birth. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of β-cell dysfunction (the...
The Association of Rate of Weight Gain During Early Adulthood With the Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: The MAXWEL-CAD Study
To investigate the association of the rate of weight gain (Ratemax_wt) between the age of 20 years and the age of maximum lifetime weight gain with indicators of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We studied 1,724 consecutive Korean subjects aged ≥30 years with recently diagnosed (within 3 months) T2D and one or more cardiovascular ri...

Incidence of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer in a Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial (SAVOR-TIMI 53) of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Saxagliptin
To determine the incidence of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in the SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial. A total of 16,492 type 2 diabetic patients ≥40 years old with established cardiovascular (CV) disease or CV risk factors were randomized to saxagliptin or placebo and followed for 2.1 years. Outcome measures were investigator reported with blinded expert adjudication of total pancreatitis (acute and ...
Individual Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Treating Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Depression is a common comorbidity of diabetes, undesirably affecting patients’ physical and mental functioning. Psychological interventions are effective treatments for depression in the general population as well as in patients with a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of individual mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and individual cognitive behavi...
Multivariate epidemiologic analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus risks in the Lebanese population
The burden of diabetes in Lebanon requires well-targeted interventions for screening type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes and prevention of risk factors. Newly recruited 998 Lebanese individuals, in addition to 7,292 already available, were studied to investigate the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes and their associated risk factors. Participants had fasting blood sugar and glycoh...
Incretin-based therapies and acute pancreatitis risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Concerns raised by several animal studies, case reports, and pharmacovigilance warnings over incretin-based therapy potentially exposing type two diabetes patients to an elevated risk of pancreatitis have cast a shadow on the overall safety of this class of drugs. This systematic review evaluates the data from observational studies that compared treatment with or without incretins and the risk ...