Endocrinology

Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against cLEPR in growing chickens
In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR cDNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ...


Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling
Glucocorticoid (GC) therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR) that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT) substrate with 160 kDa (AS160) as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (A...
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian adolescent women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a risk marker for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), limited data are available on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of PCOS especially in Indian women. The objective was to determine serum hs-CRP concentration in adolescent women with and without PCOS and t...


Mechanisms of local invasion in enteroendocrine tumors: identification of novel candidate cytoskeleton-associated proteins in an experimental mouse model by a proteomic approach and validation in human tumors
Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are defined as locally invasive only after extension to the muscularis propria. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms, we applied a proteomic approach to an orthotopic xenograft model to identify candidate proteins evaluable in human SI-NETs. After grafting STC-1 neuroendocrine tumor cells on the caecum of nude mice, comparative p...
Distinct patterns of heparan sulfate in pancreatic islets suggest novel roles in paracrine islet regulation
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) exist in pancreatic beta cells, and HS seems to modulate important interactions in the islet microenvironment. However, the intra-islet structures of HS in health or altered glucose homeostasis are currently unknown. Here we show that distinct spatial distribution of HS motifs is present in islets in the adult, that intra-islet HS motifs are mostly conserve...


Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways
Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyam...
The post-translational regulation of 17,20 lyase activity
A single enzyme, microsomal P450c17, catalyzes the 17α-hydroxylase activity needed to make cortisol and the subsequent 17,20 lyase activity needed to produce the 19-carbon precursors of sex steroids. The biochemical decision concerning whether P450c17 stops after 17α-hydroxylation or proceeds to 17,20 lyase activity is largely dependent on three post-translational factors. First, 17,20 lyase ...

The role of the FTO (fat mass and obesity related) locus in regulating body size and composition
Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have indicated that SNPs on a chromosome 16 locus encompassing FTO, as well as IRX3, 5, 6, FTM and FTL are robustly associated with human obesity. GWAS however, are by nature gene agnostic, and SNPs reaching the appropriate statistical threshold for a given phenotype can appear anywhere in the genome, within, near or far away from any coding sequence. Thus ...
Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and onl...

Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7) Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes
Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED) but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC) are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7) on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC) and on protein expression levels of potential downst...
Glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance: prevalence, gender differences and predictors in adolescents
Adolescence, due to transient pubertal insulin resistance (IR), is associated with a higher risk for disturbances of glucose metabolism. The aim of our study was 1) to investigate the prevalence of disturbances of glucose metabolism, 2) to define gender specific HOMA-IR thresholds associated with increased cardiometabolic risks and 3) to provide predictors of HOMA-IR. The studied cohort consist...

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones of two cold water crab species, Chionoecetes opilio and C. japonicus: Isolation of cDNA sequences and localization of CHH neuropeptide in eyestalk ganglia
Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is primarily known for its prototypical function in hyperglycemia which is induced by the release of CHH. The CHH release takes place as an adaptive response to the energy demands of the animals experiencing stressful environmental, physiological or behavioral conditions. Although >63 decapod CHH nucleotide sequences are known (GenBank), the majorit...
Evolution of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor and its ligand
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, which was first identified in the Japanese quail hypothalamus. GnIH peptides share a C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif in most vertebrates. The receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) is the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147) that inhibits cAMP production. GPR147 is also named neuropept...
Molecular and cellular characterization of urinary bladder-type aquaporin in Xenopus laevis
In contrast to many anuran amphibians, water is not reabsorbed from the urinary bladder in aquatic Xenopus, thereby helping to prevent excessive water influx. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms for this process. In the present study, we have identified urinary bladder-type aquaporin, AQP-x2, in Xenopus laevis by cDNA cloning. The predicted amino acid sequence contained six ...
New insights into the evolution of vertebrate CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) and invertebrate DH44 (diuretic hormone 44) receptors in metazoans
The corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR) and the arthropod diuretic hormone 44 receptors (DH44R) are structurally and functionally related members of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) of the secretin-like receptor superfamily. We show here that they derive from a bilaterian predecessor. In protostomes, the receptor became DH44R that has been identified and functionally characte...