Electronics

Recent progress in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0268-1242/29/11/113001/toc_sst499638ieqn1.gif] {$left( 000bar{1} right)$} N-polar group-III nitrides
Progress in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of high quality ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0268-1242/29/11/113001/sst499638ieqn2.gif] {$left( 000bar{1} right)$} N-polar (Al, Ga, In)N films on sapphire, silicon carbide and silicon substrates is reviewed with focus on key process components such as utilization of vicinal substrates, conditions ensuring a high surface mobility of specie...


ESD robustness concern and optimization for high-voltage p-type LDMOS transistor with thin gate oxide used as the output driver
The p-type lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) transistor with thin gate oxide has significant advantages when being used as a high side output driver in high-voltage ICs (HVICs), because it usually possesses larger current density compared with a device with thick gate oxide. However, in order to reduce the chip size, many HVICs do not have specialized output electrostatic discharge (ESD) pro...
Optical triggering of 4H-SiC thyristors (18 kV class) to high currents in purely inductive load circuit
Optical switch-on of a very high voltage (18 kV class) 4H-SiC thyristor with an amplification step (pilot thyristor) to the current I max = 1225 A is demonstrated using a purely inductive load and a calibrated air transformer. Increasing the inductance of the transformer primary winding slows down the turn on process. However, the inductance has little effect during the initial stage of the s...


Electron transport in ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures
We numerically calculate the wave function of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) for use in 2DEG transport theory and study the electron transport in ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures. For strongly confined 2DEG, the temperature dependence of the electron mobility is satisfactorily explained using 2DEG transport theory. The interface roughness and ionized impurity scatterings play important roles in ...
Antenna Miniaturization with MEMS Tunable Capacitors: Techniques and Trade-Offs
In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-of-the-art in terms of insertion loss. Their characteristics are used in this investigation. This paper uses field simulations to highlight the trade-offs bet...


Production of reduced graphene oxide via hydrothermal reduction in an aqueous sulphuric acid suspension and its electrochemical behaviour
Widespread availability of fuel cells is being delayed due to the scarcity and high expense of precious metal catalysts, which presently provide the most efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Research has shown efficient electrocatalysis towards ORR from carbon materials offers a possible alternative to precious metal catalysts. Increasing focus is being given to the provision of graphene ...
Redox reactions in a linear polyviologen derivative studied by in situ ESR/UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry
It is well-known that reductive electropolymerization of cyanopyridinium moieties yields to viologenic materials. In this work, a monomer with two electropolymerizable cyanopyridinium groups separated by a six carbon spacer (CNP) has been synthesized. Its electropolymerization in aqueous electrolyte results in a linear polyviologen (PV) derivative, a purple-colored film deposited on the electro...

Reactivity of Alcohols with Three-Carbon Atom Chain on Pt in Acidic Medium
n-Propanol, 2-propanol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and glycerol are all saturated alcohols with a three-carbon atom chain. The difference between them is the number of hydroxyl groups and their positions in these molecules. The interaction between alcohols with a three-carbon atom chain and model surfaces and the further reaction have been widely investigated in the last three decades. I...
Enhanced Electrooxidation of Ethanol Using Pd/C + TiO2 Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media
This work describes the use of Pd nanoparticles synthetized by the borohydride process and supported on physical mixtures of C + TiO2 toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction in alkaline media. In this study, the C/TiO2 ratios were studied by ranging the mass proportions of C/TiO2—100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100. X-ray diffraction patterns showed the presence of Pd face-cente...

Relay selection for two-way opportunistic relaying with outdated Nakagami-m estimates
Opportunistic relay selection (RS) is an efficient method to obtain diversity gain in two-way relaying protocol with multiple relays. However, in practical wireless networks, the channel state information (CSI) used in the RS procedure becomes outdated because of the feedback delay, which severely deteriorates the system performance. In this paper, we study the RS strategies that aim to optimis...
Reliability of Wafer Level Chip Scale Packages
This paper describes applied reliability for semiconductor components in Wafer Level Chip Scale Packages (CSP). To develop and qualify reliable products, the failure mechanism driven approach is to be followed instead of the stress test driven one. This will be explained by elaborating on two failure mode cases assessed in WL-CSP: cracks in the passivation layer and top metal of the die/silicon...

Qualification procedure for moisture in embedded capacitors
Embedding passives in PCB permits to gain in integration density while enhancing electromagnetic compatibility performances. The choice of the dielectric film is fundamental for large frequency band stability of embedded capacitances. However, these materials are prone to water absorption, which can lead to functional parameter degradations and additional stresses at the interfaces. This paper ...
Quantitative Scanning Microwave Microscopy: A calibration flow
A procedure for doping concentration calibration using Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) is presented. Calibration measurements are performed at a purpose-built sample comprising a wide range of doping concentrations of both n- and p-type implants at the sample surface. In order to evaluate the criticality of parameters affecting the measured signal, a transmission line model is used that tak...
Performance and reliability trade-offs for high-κ RRAM
Resistive random access memories (RRAM) have shown tremendous potential in replacing Flash technology for future non-volatile data storage device applications in just about a couple of years from now. Although RRAM has various advantages in terms of simple design, high density integration and CMOS compatible process flow, it has its own intrinsic constraints in terms of variability and reliabil...
A study of deposition conditions on charging properties of PECVD silicon nitride films for MEMS capacitive switches
The present paper aims to provide a better insight to the electrical characteristics of silicon nitride films that have been deposited with PECVD method under different conditions. The effect of film thickness, substrate temperature and the frequency that produces the plasma in PECVD method on the dielectric charging phenomenon in silicon nitride films has been investigated with the aid of ther...