Civil Engineering

A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings
Full-scale experiments under both steady-state and dynamic conditions have been performed to compare the energy performance of a radiant wall and an active chilled beam. From these experiments, it has been observed that the radiant wall is a more secure and efficient way of removing heat from the test room than the active chilled beam. The energy saving, which can be estimated to around 10%, is...


Developing a Body Sensor Network to Detect Emotions During Driving
Emerging applications using body sensor networks (BSNs) constitute a new trend in car safety. However, the integration of heterogeneous body sensors with vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) poses a challenge, particularly on the detection of human behavioral states that may impair driving. This paper proposes a detector of human emotions, of which tiredness and stress (tension) could be related ...
Driver Workload Characteristics Analysis Using EEG Data From an Urban Road
The main cause of traffic accidents is drivers' human errors such as cognitive, judgment, and execution errors. To mitigate drivers' human errors, research on the measurement and quantification of driver workload as well as the development of smart vehicles is needed. Drivers' behavior while driving includes driving straight, turning left or right, U-turns, rapid acceleration, rapid deceleratio...


A Validation Study on a Subjective Driving Workload Prediction Tool
A variety of methods used to measure a driver's workload do not include information such as the driver's characteristics and attitudes. A subjective driving workload prediction tool (DWPT) was developed to overcome this limitation. The purpose of this study is to validate the DWPT, which is composed of three subfactors: the situational inadaptability, the risk-taking personality, and the interp...
Subjective Traffic Safety Experts' Knowledge for Driving-Risk Definition
This paper presents a novelty system for the detection of driving-risk situations based on the knowledge acquired from traffic safety experts. A complete methodology to generate a driving-risk reference signal has been developed. A set of driving sessions was executed in a very realistic truck simulator, where several measures and visual information from the vehicle, the driver, and the road we...


Toward Privacy-Protecting Safety Systems for Naturalistic Driving Videos
A common pool of naturalistic driving data is necessary to develop and compare algorithms that infer driver behavior, in order to improve driving safety. Naturalistic driving data, such as video sequences of looking at a driver, however, cause concern for the privacy of individual drivers. In an ideal situation, a deidentification filter applied to a raw image of looking at a driver would, sema...
Effect of Using an In-Vehicle Smart Driving Aid on Real-World Driver Performance
A smart driving system (providing both safety and fuel-efficient driving advice in real time in the vehicle) was evaluated in real-world on-road driving trials to see if any measurable beneficial changes in driving performance would be observed. Forty participants drove an instrumented vehicle over a 50-min mixed-route driving scenario. Two conditions were adopted: one is a control with no smar...

Toward a Methodology for Assessing Electric Vehicle Exterior Sounds
Laws mandate that electric vehicles emit sounds to ensure pedestrians' safety by alerting pedestrians of the vehicles' approach. Additionally, manufacturers want these sounds to promote positive impressions of the vehicle brand. A reliable and valid methodology is needed to evaluate electric vehicles' exterior sounds. To help develop such a methodology, this paper examines automotive exterior s...
Haptic Steering Support for Driving Near the Vehicle's Handling Limits: Test-Track Case
Current vehicle dynamic control systems from simple yaw control to high-end active steering support systems are designed to primarily actuate on the vehicle itself, rather than stimulate the driver to adapt his/her inputs for better vehicle control. The driver though dictates the vehicle's motion, and centralizing him/her in the control loop is hypothesized to promote safety and driving pleasur...

Vehicle Active Steering Control System Based on Human Mechanical Impedance Properties of the Arms
This paper presents the experimental data of human mechanical impedance properties (HMIPs) of the arms measured in steering operations according to the angle of a steering wheel (limbs posture) and the steering torque (muscle cocontraction). The HMIP data show that human stiffness/viscosity has the minimum/maximum value at the neutral angle of the steering wheel in relax (standard condition) an...
Study on Emergency-Avoidance Braking for the Automatic Platooning of Trucks
In developing automatic platooning of trucks as an energy-saving technology, the reliable driving of the platooned trucks is a primary objective for public implementation and future applications. At the same time, there is also an emergency requirement to ensure the safety of the driving experiment in the automatic platooning of trucks, including the conditions of a system failure. This paper p...

Detection of Intoxicated Drivers Using Online System Identification of Steering Behavior
Impaired driving is known to be among the leading causes of death and injury on roads; however, the existing measures to address this menace appear to be insufficient. This paper presents a novel method to detect intoxicated driving and lays a foundation that can be implemented in future cars to derive personalized models of drivers and to detect not only intoxicated driving but also other reck...
Parallel Public Transportation System and Its Application in Evaluating Evacuation Plans for Large-Scale Activities
This paper proposes a method based on the Artificial societies, Computational experiments, and Parallel execution (ACP) approach to build parallel public transportation systems (PPTSs). The framework and components of a PPTS are analyzed, and some details for building the PPTS are discussed. One prototype based on intelligent traffic clouds is established. One specific PPTS is developed for the...
Pedestrian Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Multistory Buildings Using Inertial Sensors
Pedestrian navigation is an important ingredient for efficient multimodal transportation, such as guidance within large transportation infrastructures. A requirement is accurate positioning of people in indoor multistory environments. To achieve this, maps of the environment play a very important role. FootSLAM is an algorithm based on the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) principle ...
A Simulation Analysis on the Existence of Network Traffic Flow Equilibria
A macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) can be applied to design simple and effective traffic network control strategies to prevent congestion in an urban traffic network. Network flow equilibria on MFDs are important properties for designing effective network controllers for urban traffic networks. In order to verify the existence of equilibria on MFDs, microscopic simulations are run for an u...