Civil Engineering

Transient hygrothermal modelling of coated hemp-concrete walls
The use of hemp concrete, a sustainable material, in constructions is developing significantly. The hygrothermal properties of this hygroscopic porous material promise a good potential in terms of increasing occupants’ comfort. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to assess hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp-concrete wall submitted to transient boundary conditions. First, benchmarking th...


Compaction behaviour and particle crushing of a crushed sandstone particle mixture
The density-moisture curves for five crushed sandstone particle mixtures, with different grain size distribution curves, were determined by a standard compaction test. The values of the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, deduced from the compaction tests, range from 2.04 to 2.11 g/cm3 and from 7.56 to 10.11%, respectively. The variations of the maximum dry density and optimum m...
A bilevel model for multivariate risk analysis of pedestrians’ crossing behavior at signalized intersections
Pedestrians who cross streets during the red-man phase of traffic light signals expose themselves to safety and health hazards and hence are considered to be at risk. Pedestrians’ street-crossing behavior is in general the outcome of interaction between pedestrians and vehicles: the gaps between vehicles provide an opportunity for pedestrians to cross the street, and pedestrians may or may no...


Age related annual crash incidence rate ratios in professional drivers of heavy goods vehicles
Evidence concerning crash risk for older heavy vehicle drivers is sparse, making it difficult to assess if it is prudent to encourage older drivers to remain in the workforce in a climate of labour shortages. The objective of this study was to estimate annual crash rate ratios of older male heavy vehicle drivers relative to their middle aged peers. Data utilized in this study includes all crash...
Trend Detection of Drought in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions of Iran Based on Implementation of Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) and Application of Non-Parametrical Statistical Method
Drought is known as one of the main natural hazards especially in arid and semi-arid regions where there are considerable issues in regard to water resources management. Also, climate changes has been introduced as a global concern and therefore, under conditions of climate change and global warming, the investigation of drought severity trend in regions such as Iran which is mainly covered by ...


Water Footprint of Grain Product in Irrigated Farmland of China
China faces the dual challenge of grain production pressure and water scarcity. It is significant to reduce water footprint of grain product (WFGP, m3/t) in irrigated farmland. The focus of grain production and agricultural water use, and the precondition is to determine the WFGP and its composition. This paper estimates the WFGP in irrigated farmland of 31 provinces (including municipalities, ...
First laboratory study of air–sea gas exchange at hurricane wind speeds
In a pilot study conducted in October and November 2011, air–sea gastransfer velocities of the two sparingly soluble trace gaseshexafluorobenzene and 1,4-difluorobenzene were measured in the uniquehigh-speed wind-wave tank at Kyoto University, Japan. This air–seainteraction facility is capable of producing hurricane strength wind speedsof up to u10 =67 m s−1. This constitutes the firs...

Multiscale Study of the Nonlinear Behavior of Heterogeneous Clayey Rocks Based on the FFT Method
A multiscale model based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to study the nonlinear mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite, a typical heterogeneous clayey rocks. COx argillite is modeled as a three-phase composite with a clay matrix and two types of mineral inclusions. The macroscopic mechanical behavior of argillite samples with different mineralogical compositions...
Quality Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Based Visual Inspection of Structures
This paper discusses the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for visual inspection and damage detection on civil structures. The quality of photos and videos taken by using such airborne vehicles is strongly influenced by numerous parameters such as lighting conditions, distance to the object and vehicle motion induced by environmental effects. Whilst such devices feature highly sophi...

Achievements and Challenges in Machine Vision-Based Inspection of Large Concrete Structures
Large concrete structures need to be inspected in order to assess their current physical and functional state, to predict future conditions, to support investment planning and decision making, and to allocate limited maintenance and rehabilitation resources. Current procedures in condition and safety assessment of large concrete structures are performed manually leading to subjective and unreli...
Effects of Wireless Sensor Network Uncertainties on Output-Only Modal Analysis Employing Merged Data of Multiple Tests
The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has become a promising approach due to many advantages such as low cost, fast and flexible deployment. However, inherent technical issues such as data asynchronicity and data loss have prevented these distinct systems from being extensively used. Recently, several SHM-oriented WSNs have been propos...

A Global Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection
Structural damage detection (SDD) is an important but still challenging task in the structural health monitoring (SHM) field. Many methodologies have been developed and broad application prospect are expected. However, there are still some difficulties when they are applied to the real structures. In this study, a novel global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) is proposed for exploring a ...
Entire-Process Simulation of Earthquake-Induced Collapse of a Mockup Cable-Stayed Bridge by Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) Method
It is important to simulate the entire-process collapse of earthquake excited cable-stayed bridge in order to assure the damage extent under strong earthquakes and to optimize the anti-collapse seismic measures. The newly developed vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) method is capable of computing large deformation, large displacement, collision, and fractures that would happen in the ...
Experimental Study on Failure Mechanism of RC Walls with Different Boundary Elements under Vertical and Lateral Loads
Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls have been widely applied in high-rise buildings. DBSD (Displacement-Based Seismic Design) of shear wall structures requires more accurate deformation evaluation theories and methods. Boundary elements of RC walls have been found to have a significant impact on the seismic behaviours, but the strain-stress development details including plane section assumptio...
Progressive Collapse Mechanisms of Steel Frames Exposed to Fire
OpenSees is an open-source object-oriented software framework developed at UC Berekeley. The OpenSees framework has been recently extended to deal with structural behavior under fire conditions. This paper summaries the key work done for this extension and focuses on the application of the developed OpenSees to study the fire-induced progressive collapse mechanisms of steel structures. The impl...