Chemical Engineering

Towards the modeling of a heat-exchanger reactor by a dynamic approach
The aim of this paper is to present the development of a simulation tool in order to assess the inherently-safe characteristics of a heat-exchanger reactor (HEX) operating reaction systems. The modeling of steady and transient states of a HEX reactor is performed following a hybrid dynamic approach. The global dynamic behavior of this reactor can be represented by several continuous models, whi...


Advanced tools for fluid and fouling layer characterization applied to the description of membrane fouling phenomena for particle-organic matter mixtures
Fouling by the formation of a complex cake remains a major hindrance of membrane bioreactors. One approach to fouling mitigation is to add particles within the biofluid in order to improve sludge filterability. Despite a number of studies dealing with this topic, fouling mechanisms are still not clear. This study reports the use of an original methodology for better fouling understanding and mi...
A general method to diverse silver/mesoporous–metal–oxide nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic activity
Incorporating plasmonic Ag nanoparticles into mesoporous metal–oxide (MMO) semiconductors will achieve collective effect to greatly increase the photocatalysis. This work demonstrated a general two-step method to obtain diverse Ag/MMO composite photocatalysts with plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic activity. Several typical MMO (TiO2, ZnO, and CeO2) semiconductors were synthesized by integrating...


Preparation, Sedimentation, and Agglomeration of Nanofluids
Research on nanofluids has increased significantly in the last decade due to the distinctive potential in many applications such as enhanced heat transfer processes, drug delivery systems, and membrane manufacturing processes. The study of dispersion behavior of nanoparticles in liquids is a topic of keen interest towards the preparation of stable nanofluids. A comprehensive review on the recen...
Coal Pyrolysis in a Laboratory-Scale Two-Stage Reactor: Catalytic Upgrading of Pyrolytic Vapors
In situ upgrading of coal pyrolysis vapors over Ce/Zr/Ni and Ce/Zr/Ni/Zn catalysts was studied in a two-stage reactor. The catalytic effects of Ce/Zr/Ni and Ce/Zr/Ni/Zn on the pyrolysis products were examined, revealing that CO2, CO, and H2 were dramatically increased and pyrolytic water was decreased when using these catalysts. The tar collected in the cooling traps showed a slight increase af...


Equilibrium conditions for clathrate hydrates formed from carbon dioxide or ethane in the presence of aqueous solutions of 1,4-dioxane and 1,3-dioxolane
Equilibrium conditions for clathrate hydrates formed from carbon dioxide or ethane in aqueous solutions of 1,4-dioxane and 1,3-dioxolane were determined experimentally using an isochoric method. Addition of the 1,4-dioxane and 1,3-dioxolane to water shifted the equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates to a higher temperature, indicating that they promote carbon dioxide hydrate formatio...
Comparison of steaming stability of Cu-ZSM-5 with those of Ag-ZSM-5, P/H-ZSM-5, and H-ZSM-5 zeolites as naphtha cracking catalysts to produce light olefin at high temperatures
We performed n-heptane cracking over Cu-ZSM-5, Ag-ZSM-5, and P/H-ZSM-5 before and after steaming under various conditions. The reduced Cu-ZSM-5 and Ag-ZSM-5 exhibited similar n-heptane cracking activities to H-ZSM-5 due to generation of Brønsted acid sites by reduction of metal cations. The order of steaming stabilities in the presence of O2 was Cu-ZSM-5>Ag-ZSM-5 >> P/H-ZS...

Hydrogen Production by Sorption-Enhanced Steam Methane Reforming Process using CaO-Zr/Ni Bifunctional Sorbent-Catalyst
A bifunctional CaO-Zr/Ni (13, 18 and 20.5 wt% NiO) sorbent-catalyst was developed using the wet-mixing/sonication technique and applied for hydrogen production by sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SESMR), an intensified process that integrates hydrogen production with CO2 capture. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scannin...
Desalination combined with hexavalent chromium reduction in a microbial desalination cell
The microbial desalination cell (MDC) was a novel technology to desalinate saline water, simultaneously producing electricity and treating wastewater. In our research, an MDC using a synthetic Cr (VI)-containing wastewater as the catholyte was used to desalinate brine in the desalination chamber and simultaneously to reduce Cr (VI) in cathode chamber. Below a pH value of 2.0 with an initial Cr ...

Multifunctional carbon nanotubes in water treatment: The present, past and future
The availability of safe and clean water is decreasing day by day, which is expected to increase in the coming decades. To address this problem, various water purification technologies have been adopted. Among the various concepts proposed, carbon nanotube (CNT) based water treatment technologies are the most promising because of its large surface area, high aspect ratio, greater chemical react...
A membrane combined process to cope with algae blooms in water
Algae blooms seriously threaten water quality and the supply of drinking water. A membrane process combined with coagulation, powdered activated carbon, and potassium permanganate was used as a treatment and investigated for its ability to cope with algae blooms in water bodies. The experimental results demonstrated that algae blooms can cause greater organic matter concentrations with large in...

Tertiary amine block copolymer containing ultrafiltration membrane with pH-dependent macromolecule sieving and Cr(VI) removal properties
To obtain ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with multi-functions in permeation, macromolecule sieving and specific heavy metal removal by adsorption, tertiary amine groups containing amphiphilic block copolymers (poly(methyl methacrylate-b-dimethylamino-2-ethyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-b-DMAEMA))) were designed and synthesized. Then the block copolymers were used to fabricate the tertiary amine block ...
Stabilization of composite hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes with a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) coating
Composite hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane coated with a thin layer of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) can separate monovalent ions from multivalent ions with a low energy demand. It has found applications in desalination of glyphosate wastewater and removal of arsenic from drinking water. Before large scale application of such membranes, one of the main issues is the long time ...
Fouling control of PAC/UF process for treating algal-rich water
Algal blooms threaten the performance of ultrafiltration (UF) in drinking water treatment; the hybrid process of powdered activated carbon and ultrafiltration (PAC/UF) process was evaluated for treating algal-rich water. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) removal and fouling characteristics were conducted and compared with the parallel UF. The results indicate that the PAC/UF process could achieve complete...
Treatment of phenolic wastewater by combined UF and NF/RO processes
The potential of using the integrated membrane systems based on ultrafiltration (UF) coupled with nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) for the treatment of phenolic wastewater from a paper mill was investigated. Polyethersulfone based membranes PES7000 (MWCO 7000), GR82PP (MWCO 5000), GR95PP (MWCO 2000), and SynderXT (MWCO 1000) were used for the UF treatment, and SynderXT exhibited the ...