Architecture

The influence of out-of-straightness imperfection in physical theory models of bracing members on seismic performance assessment of concentric braced structures
In physical theory models, the hysteretic response of concentric braces is simulated by modelling the bracings with two nonlinear fibre-section beam–column elements connected together with an initial out-of-straightness imperfection (∆0). The width of such imperfection is the parameter governing the numerical prediction of the brace buckling. In this paper, the accuracy of different formula...


Seismic optimal design of 3D steel frames using cuckoo search algorithm
The present article is concerned with optimization of real size 3D steel structures under seismic loading based on response spectral and equivalent static analyses. The effect of lateral seismic loading distribution on the achieved optimum designs is investigated. An integrated optimization procedure with the objective of minimizing the self-weight of frame is simply performed interfacing SAP20...
Engineering and sulfate resistance properties of slag-CFBC fly ash paste and mortar
This study explores a SCA cement produced by mixing slag (S) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ash (CA). The hydration products of SCA cement detected by X-ray Diffraction and Thermogravimetric Analysis were ettringite, calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminium silicate hydrate, all of which produced dense microstructure. The compressive strengths of SCA paste and mortar ...


Reliable condition assessment of structures using hybrid structural measurements and structural uncertainty analyses
The failure of structural systems has significant societal and human consequences. Therefore, there is a crucial need to assess the structural condition of in-service and aging structures which is a major cost and management consideration, particularly in cases with unknown design validation. However, structural condition assessment, when conducted according to state-of-the-art protocols, produ...
Between architecture and model: Strategies for cognitive control
One major limitation of current cognitive architectures is that models are typically constructed in an “empty” architecture, and that the knowledge specifications (typically production rules) are specific to the particular task. This means that general cognitive control strategies have to be implemented for each specific model, which means a lack of consistency and constraint. Alternatively...


Sorption characteristics of stabilised soil blocks embedded with waste plastic fibres
This paper highlights the results of an experimental investigation, on the Sorption Characteristics of plastic fibre reinforced soil, done to study the possibility of utilisation of waste plastics in soil masonry blocks. Cylindrical specimen of raw soil and modified soil were prepared by compacting at different moulding pressures and were tested for sorption characteristics. Raw soil is modifie...
Development and experimental validation of a lightweight Stay-in-Place composite formwork for concrete beams
Current formwork research aims towards new cost-competitive formwork systems and materials that focus on labour reduction and efficient material use. This labour cost is reduced when using Stay-in-Place (SiP) formworks. Besides its forming function, SiP formwork can moreover have a protective, an aesthetic or even a structural contribution to the hardened concrete element. Using cement composit...

Influence of silica fume on stress–strain behavior of FRP-confined HSC
Confinement of high-strength concrete (HSC) columns with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has been receiving increasing research attention due to the advantageous engineering properties offered by the composite system. The use of silica fume as a concrete additive is a widely accepted practice in producing HSC. However, the influence of the presence and amount of silica fume on the eff...
A Comparative Study of Benchmarking Approaches for Non-domestic Buildings: Part 1 – Top-down Approach
Benchmarking plays an important role in improving energy efficiency of non-domestic buildings. A review of energy benchmarks that underpin the UK’s Display Energy Certificate (DEC) scheme have prompted necessities to explore the benefits and limitations of using various methods to derive energy benchmarks. The existing methods were reviewed and grouped into top-down and bottom-up approaches b...

On adaptive occupant-learning window blind and lighting controls
Occupants have a significant impact upon building energy use, e.g. through the actuation of window blinds and switching off lights. Automation systems with fixed set points for controlling blinds and lights have been used in some applications as an attempt to mitigate the impact of occupant behaviour upon energy consumption. A conceptual framework of an alternative control method is presented, ...
Lift path planning for a nonholonomic crawler crane
This paper presents an efficient lift path planning approach for a crawler crane in which the mobility of the crawler crane and its nonholonomic kinematics are considered. To obtain the optimal path rapidly, we improved the bidirectional Rapidly exploring Random Trees (RRTs) using a sampling strategy and an expansion strategy. The sampling strategy of choosing a sample from a sampling pool and ...

On the modelling of initial geometric imperfections of steel frames in advanced analysis
Steel structural members and frames always indicate imperfections to various degrees. These include initial out-of-straightness and initial out-of-plumb due to manufacturing and erection tolerances. In general, the shape and magnitude of geometric imperfections may have a significant influence on the response of a structure, and hence need to be modelled accurately when determining the load car...
Correlation between rheology and chemical composition of aged polymer-modified asphalts
This study explores correlation between chemical and rheological changes in polymer-modified asphalts (PMA) aged in laboratory. Viscosity measurements were conducted in Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), whereas the changes in asphalt chemical composition due to aging were elucidated from their Fourier transform infrared spectra obtained in Attenuate Total Reflection (ATR) mode. The analysis of var...
A study on wood beams strengthened by FRP composite materials
Hollow-sectioned wood beams strengthened by Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) rod and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite sheets were proposed in the paper. Five groups of specimens with and without FRP reinforcement were tested. The four-point bending test was conducted to obtain the force–displacement relationships of the wood beams. The experimental results of the five gro...
An artificial neural network model for predicting compression strength of heat treated woods and comparison with a multiple linear regression model
This paper aims to design an artificial neural network model to predict compression strength parallel to grain of heat treated woods, without doing comprehensive experiments. In this study, the artificial neural network results were also compared with multiple linear regression results. The results indicated that artificial neural network model provided better prediction results compared to the...