Architecture

Design of Dwellings and Interior Family Space in China: Understanding the History of Change and Opportunities for Improved Sustainability Practices
This paper reviews briefly the recent history of dwelling design in China. It notes the rapid changes that have taken place since the 1980s and identifies the way contemporary procurement processes leave out the final fit-out and decoration/refurbishment. A range of stakeholders were interviewed, and access was gained to drawings and other technical data that indicated how the secondary process...


Effects of site geology on seismic ground motion: early history
This is the 6th contribution in the series of Historical Notes on seminal concepts in earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. It documents the origins and early developments (from the 1880s through 1992) of the effects of site geology on seismic ground motion.
Seismic demand on light acceleration-sensitive nonstructural components in European reinforced concrete buildings
In this paper, a parametric study is conducted in order to evaluate the seismic demand on light acceleration-sensitive nonstructural components caused by frequent earthquakes. The study is motivated by the inconsistent approach of current building codes to the design of nonstructural components; the extensive nonstructural damage recorded after recent low-intensity earthquakes also encouraged s...


Seismic reliability analysis of buildings with torsional eccentricities
A study is presented of the influence of stiffness and strength eccentricities on the inelastic torsional response of buildings under the action of two simultaneous orthogonal horizontal ground motion components. Asymmetric buildings were obtained from their respective symmetric systems and were characterized by their stiffness and strength torsional eccentricities in both orthogonal directions...
Towards a standardized procedure for the safety assessment of stability design rules
En 1990 — Annex D contains a procedure for the safety analysis of resistance functions, based on First-Order Reliability Methods; this procedure permits the determination of appropriate values (in a semi-probabilistic design concept) of partial safety factors γM on the basis of physical or numerical test results. In establishing the partial safety factor γM of a design procedure, scatter re...


Seismic behavior of replaceable steel truss coupling beams with buckling restrained webs
In order to facilitate the constructability and meanwhile ensure desirable seismic behavior, an innovative type of replaceable steel truss coupling beam with a buckling restrained web was conceived and studied. The buckling restrained steel web is designed and detailed as a fuse and a damper of the beam in which all inelastic deformations and damage are concentrated. Bolted connections between ...
Concentric tubular steel braces subjected to seismic loading: Finite element modeling
Steel buildings are susceptible to damage during earthquakes if an unreliable bracing system is used. A well-designed and detailed concentric bracing system is needed for steel buildings in a seismically active area. Failure of a concentric bracing member occurs at the mid-length plastic hinge. A refined finite element model has been developed to simulate the hysteresis behavior of bracing memb...

Investigation into long-term behaviour and stability of concrete-filled steel tubular arches
This paper presents the long-term structural behaviour analysis and stability assessment carried out on concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) circular arches. Linear and non-linear analyses are herein conducted for pin-ended and fixed arches subjected to a central concentrated load. Accounting for the significant effects from creep and shrinkage in concrete core, in-plane deformations, internal ...
Design of X-shaped double split tee joints accounting for moment–shear interaction
Dealing with steel moment resisting frames (MRFs), the latest version of Eurocode 8 allows us to dissipate the seismic input energy in connections provided that their characteristics under cyclic loads are certified by means of experimental testing. Within the beam-to-column joint typologies to be used in seismic resistant steel frames, the double split tee joint (DST) represents an interesting...

Optimal design of long-span steel portal frames using fabricated beams
This paper considers the optimal design of fabricated steel beams for long-span portal frames. The design optimisation takes into account ultimate as well as serviceability limit states, adopting deflection limits recommended by the Steel Construction Institute (SCI). for three benchmark frames demonstrate the efficiency of the optimisation methodology. A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to opti...
Performance-based fire modelling of intumescent painted steel structures and comparison to EC3
Following the present directives for building products, the manufacturers of intumescent paints for fire protection of structural steel typically offer tables for presentation of the product's insulating efficiency showing its dry film thicknesses (DFTs) required to sufficiently delay the defined steel critical temperature. From these tables only the final time of reaching this critical limit i...

Fatigue of riveted and bolted joints made of puddle iron—An experimental approach
In Europe and North America there are a significant number of old riveted bridges still in operation, mainly due to economic reasons. Since these structures have been exposed to increasing traffic intensity, along their long operational lives, their damage levels need to be accurately assessed in order to decide about possible repairs. Fatigue failures are a concern for these riveted steel brid...
Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel channel-section beams at elevated temperatures
This paper presents a numerical investigation on the buckling behaviour of plasterboard protected CFS channel-section beams subjected to uniformly distributed loads when exposed to fire on its one side. The work involves three phases, namely heat transfer analysis, pre-buckling analysis and buckling analysis. The heat transfer analysis is accomplished using two-dimensional finite element analys...
High temperature tests of cold-formed stainless steel double shear bolted connections
There is currently no design rule on bolted connections of cold-formed stainless steel structures at elevated temperatures. In this study, a total of 194 double shear bolted connection specimens with three different grades of stainless steel were tested, where 106 specimens were tested by steady state test method and 88 specimens were tested by transient state test method. The three different g...
Influences of nanoclays on the flame retardancy of fiber-filled and unfilled polyamide-6 with and without aluminum diethylphosphinate
The objective of this study was to investigate contribution of nanoclays to the flame retardancy of polyamide-6 and its 15 wt% short glass fiber–reinforced composite with and without an organophosphorus flame-retardant aluminum diethylphosphinate. Nanocomposites were compounded by melt mixing method via twin-screw extruder, and the specimens for testing and analyses were shaped by injecti...