Architecture

Tensile Rate Effects in High Strength-High Ductility Concrete
Researchers at the University of Michigan have recently developed a new class of concrete, named High Strength-High Ductility Concrete (HSHDC), which possesses exceptional combination of compressive strength (>150MPa) and tensile ductility (>3%) under quasi-static loads. The structural applications of HSHDC for withstanding extreme events, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, impacts,...


Effect of temperature and aluminium on calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate chemistry under equilibrium conditions
There exists limited information regarding the effect of temperature on the structure and solubility of calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H). Here, calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C–(A–)S–H) is synthesised at Ca/Si=1, Al/Si≤0.15 and equilibrated at 7–80°C. These systems increase in phase-purity, long-range order, and degree of polymerisation of C–(A–)S–H chains at...
The shrinkage of alkali activated fly ash
In this study, the autogenous and drying shrinkage of alkali activated fly ash (AAFA) pastes prepared with different contents of sodium silicate solution are reported. A higher amount of both Na2O and SiO2 resulted in a larger autogenous and drying shrinkage. Although a large autogenous shrinkage was obtained during the first 1–3days, cracking was not observed in the ellipse ring tests. In AA...


Modeling the coupled hydration–porosity–moisture transfers in mortars with organic admixtures
A model of the coupled evolution of hydration–moisture transfer processes and their influence on porosity is suggested for polymer-modified-mortars (PMM) with cellulose ether addition. This model is based on mass balance equations of each phase of the material (solid, liquid and gas), and hydration rates of cement compounds. It takes into account the effect of the cellulose ether, used as a p...
The Influence of Energy Targets and Economic Concerns in Design Strategies for a Residential Nearly-Zero Energy Building
Finding cost-optimal solutions towards nearly-zero energy buildings in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is a challenging task. In order to reach the 20-20-20 targets, EU energy policy has introduced new ambitious levels for the large-scale spread of nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) and the concept of the cost-optimal level, defined as the energy performan...


A concept of integrated environmental approach for building upgrades and new construction: Part 1--setting the stage
This article highlights the need for an active role for building physics in the development of near-zero energy buildings while analyzing an example of an integrated system for the upgrade of existing buildings. The science called either Building Physics in Europe or Building Science in North America has so far a passive role in explaining observed failures in construction practice. In its new ...
Compression Behavior of Form Block Walls Corresponding to the Strength of Block and Grout Concrete
This study aimed to present a reinforced concrete block system that reduces the flange thickness of the existing form block used in new buildings and optimizes the web form, and can thus capable of being used in the seismic retrofit of new and existing buildings. By conducting a compression test and finite element analysis based on the block and grouted concrete strength, it attempted to determ...

Counterfactual reasoning as a key for explaining adaptive behavior in a changing environment
It is crucial for animals to detect changes in their surrounding environment, and reinforcement learning is one of the well-known processes to explain the change detection behavior. However, reinforcement learning itself cannot fully explain rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategy in response to abrupt environment changes. A previous model employed reinforcement learning and counterfact...
From object-action to property-action: Learning causally dominant properties through cumulative explorative interactions
Emerging studies from neuroscience in relation to organization of sematic memory in the brain provide converging evidence suggesting that conceptual knowledge is organized in a distributed fashion in “property specific” cortical networks that directly support perception and action (and were active during learning). Though learning ‘object-action’ affordances and using such knowledge for...

Alleviating the curse of dimensionality – A psychologically-inspired approach
Various combinations of perceptual features are relevant for learning and action-selection. However, the storage of all possible feature combinations presents computationally impractical, and psychologically implausible, memory requirements in non-trivial environments due to a state-space explosion. Some psychological models suggest that feature combinations, or chunks, should be generated at a...
Performance and kinetics of catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde over copper manganese oxide catalyst
Thermo-catalytic oxidation (TCO) has a great potential for formaldehyde removal in terms of both efficiency and lifetime. This study investigated the performance and kinetics of hopcalite catalyst (CuO–MnO2) for indoor formaldehyde removal. The effect of inlet concentration (typical indoor level: 180–1300 ppb) and moisture concentration (typical indoor level: 2000–30,000 ppm) on the rea...

Understanding high performance buildings: The link between occupant knowledge of passive design systems, corresponding behaviors, occupant comfort and environmental satisfaction
In the past twenty years, more stringent energy codes and environmental standards have led to many higher performance building designs that use less energy. Oftentimes, high performance buildings that incorporate passive building strategies require active occupant engagement [Brown et al. (2009) [1]] but the people who work in these buildings on a daily basis may not comprehend how their actio...
Studies on early stage hydration of tricalcium silicate incorporating silica nanoparticles: Part I
Hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) in presence of nano silica at early stage has been investigated and formation of addition calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) has been quantitatively estimated. Prepared C3S was hydrated in the presence of powder nanosilica (30–70nm) using w/b ratio 0.4 for paste study and 5.0 for aqueous phase study. of ICP and XRD showed that the stage of supersaturat...
Depressurization damage of oil well cement cured for 3days at various pressures
A variety of different types of oil well cement were tested with a newly developed test apparatus under different curing conditions to study the effects of curing temperature and pressure on their tensile test behavior. Specimens were cured at temperatures ranging from 24 to 60°C and pressures ranging from 0.69 to 51.7MPa. Tensile tests were performed at the age of 72h. The capability of the t...
Characterization of a stabilized earth concrete and the effect of incorporation of aggregates of cork on its thermo-mechanical properties: Experimental study and modeling
In this paper, mechanical and thermal properties of compressed earth blocks stabilized (soil–sand dune–cement) with and without aggregates of cork have been studied, with the use of some models that predict thermal conductivity for comparison of experimental results. The first part highlights the influence of the percentage by weight of cement and of sand dune on the maximum dry density, op...