Architecture

The displacement coefficient method in near-source conditions
The use of nonlinear static procedures for performance-based seismic design (PBSD) and assessment is a well-established practice, which has found its way into modern codes for quite some time. On the other hand, near-source (NS) ground motions are receiving increasing attention, because they can carry seismic demand systematically different and larger than that of the so-called ordinary records...


Numerical simulations of a highway bridge structure employing passive negative stiffness device for seismic protection
A new passive seismic response control device has been developed, fabricated, and tested by the authors and shown to be capable of producing negative stiffness via a purely mechanical mechanism, thus representing a new generation of seismic protection devices. Although the concept of negative stiffness may appear to be a reversal on the desired relationship between the force and displacement in...
Hydration of quaternary Portland cement blends containing blast-furnace slag, siliceous fly ash and limestone powder
In this study the hydration of quaternary Portland cements containing blast-furnace slag, type V fly ash and limestone and the relationship between the types and contents of supplementary cementitious materials and the hydrate assemblage were investigated at ages of up to 182 days using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. In addition thermodynamic modeling was used to calculate th...


Modeling the apparent and intrinsic viscoelastic relaxation of hydrating cement paste
Finite element procedures combined with microstructure development modeling are integrated to quantitatively predict the viscoelastic/viscoplastic relaxation of cement paste due to intrinsic calcium silicate hydrate viscoelasticity and microstructure evolution associated with the hydration process. The combined models are implemented in a computational routine to predict time-dependent stress a...
Sulfate resistance of cement-reduced eco-friendly concretes
Two newly developed cement-reduced eco-friendly concretes with high limestone powder content and low water/powder ratio were tested for sulfate resistance. Mortar samples with a paste composition of eco- as well as conventional concretes were immersed in 30gl-1 Na2SO4 and saturated Ca(OH)2 reference solutions for 200 days at 8°C. To evaluate the reaction mechanisms of progressing sulfate attac...


Development of an eco-friendly Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with efficient cement and mineral admixtures uses
This paper addresses the development of an eco-friendly Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with efficient cement and mineral admixtures uses are investigated. The modified Andreasen Andersen particle packing model is utilized to achieve a densely compacted cementitious matrix. Fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and limestone powders (LP) are used to replace cement, an...
Effects of silica additives on fracture properties of carbon nanotube and carbon fiber reinforced Portland cement mortar
Fiber reinforcements provide many benefits to cementitious composites, including reduction of crack widths and increases in ductility. However, the interfacial transition zone between fibers and hydrated cement can contain a high proportion of calcium hydroxide and porosity. With their high moduli of elasticity, carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers could provide substantial mechanical reinforceme...

Estimation of air infiltration for Australian housing energy analysis
This study presents an integrated air flow model for AccuRate, a benchmark housing energy star-rating tool widely used in Australia. The model was developed by implementing a network multi-zonal infiltration model into an existing large opening model. Case studies using 10 houses in Melbourne, Australia, showed that on average the predicted infiltration rates are within 12.6% of the blower-door...
A multidisciplinary approach to sustainable building material selection: A case study in a Finnish context
This study demonstrated the influence of building material selection on the environmental and economic parameters of a building in a Finnish context. The effects of the choice were studied for the three building component categories: structural frame, inner components (i.e. insulation and sheathing) and surface components (i.e. exterior cladding and flooring), in a comparative manner on a refer...

A numerical investigation of vertical and horizontal laminar airflow ventilation in an operating room
The effectiveness of vertical and horizontal ventilation systems in terms of reducing sedimentation and distribution of bacteria-carrying particles in an operating room is investigated. The exploration is carried out numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Both airborne particle concentration and sedimentation are simulated under different ventilation flow conditions. Model validation i...
Stakeholders' perspectives of a building environmental assessment method: The case of CASBEE
Casbee is the first building environmental assessment method developed in Japan for the promotion of sustainable building practices. Since the release of the first casbee tool in 2002, only limited studies have been conducted to understand the perspectives of casbee's stakeholders. In the Japanese building market where numerous sustainable building policies and schemes coexist, casbee's status ...

What Can We Learn from the Household Electricity Survey?
The reasons for high carbon emissions from domestic buildings are complex, and have both social and technical dimensions. At the same time, it is costly and very time-consuming to gather reliable data on energy use in the home. The authors had early access to data from the Household Electricity Survey—the most detailed survey of electricity consumption in UK homes ever undertaken—which moni...
Building Performance Analysis and Simulation: We’ve Come a Long Way
Back in 1981, when I started doing building energy performance simulation for pre-design and energy efficiency retrofit work, building simulation was in its infancy.
Influence of initial steam curing and different types of mineral additives on mechanical and durability properties of self-compacting concrete
Some projects have to be done in a short period of time, especially in urban regions. Since molds have to be demolded as soon as possible, the rate of concrete element production plays an important role in the progress of the whole project. Therefore, initial heat or steam curing at atmospheric pressure is highly needed to achieve a considerable initial compressive strength so that molds can be...
Impact of internal structure on water-resistance of plywood studied using neutron radiography and X-ray tomography
To improve water resistance of plywood, a detailed understanding of the moisture dynamics of plywood and related solid wood is essential. Neutron radiography and X-ray CT were used to monitor water transport and the internal micro-structure respectively. Compared with solid wood, water uptake and release of plywood is, apart from wood species, also influenced by veneer checks and gaps between v...