Architecture

In the laboratory and in the field: hybrid housing design for the African city in late-colonial and decolonising Ghana (1945–57)
This paper considers the case of late-colonial and ‘transitional’ Ghana (1945–57) to qualify the way in which ‘native’ dwelling practices were harnessed for housing design. Theories about the ‘colonial modern’ have underpinned the ambivalence of residential schemes and urbanisation strategies developed during decolonisation by modernist architects. Most documented among these is w...


Effect of ozonation on fungal resistance of bamboo and oak flooring materials
Lignocellulosic materials are gaining increased interest as renewable sources of building materials. However, chemical and microbiological degradation can occur when lignocellulosic materials are exposed to environmental stressors such as ozone and elevated humidity. In this study, the effects of ozone treatment and solvent extraction on fungal growth rates of bamboo and oak flooring materials ...
Integrated life-cycle assessment and thermal dynamic simulation of alternative scenarios for the roof retrofit of a house
Building retrofit plays an important role in reducing environmental loads associated with the building stock. The main goal of this article is to perform a comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the roof retrofit of a Portuguese single-family house integrating thermal dynamic simulation. A life-cycle model was developed to assess 27 alternative retrofit scenarios ...


‘A Laboratory of Heating and Ventilation’: the Johns Hopkins Hospital as experimental architecture, 1870–90
This article offers a fresh look at the origins and environmental design of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, between c. 1875 and 1890. It augments existing histories through close reference to the hospital archives and by contextualising the building within the career and interests of John Shaw Billings, a doctor who was retained by the Hospital Trustees as an expert adviser on hospital d...
Shrinkage characteristics of alkali-activated fly ash/slag paste and mortar at early ages
The purpose of this study is to investigate the shrinkage characteristics of alkali-activated fly ash/slag (henceforth simply AFS) and the factors affecting it. A series of tests were conducted to determine the chemical shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage and drying shrinkage. The microstructures and reaction products were also characterized through XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. An increase in the slag...


Rice husk ash as both pozzolanic admixture and internal curing agent in ultra-high performance concrete
The present study investigated the effects of mesoporous amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) on compressive strength, portlandite content, autogenous shrinkage and internal relative humidity (RH) of ultra-high performance concretes (UHPCs) with and without ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) under different treatments. The results were compared with those of UHPCs containing silica fume (SF)....
Thermo-Mechanical Behavior Of Baritic Concrete Exposed To High Temperature
A number of structures close to the core of the reactor in nuclear power plants or designed to confine X rays in medical facilities are required to have radiation-shielding capabilities. To this aim, dense concretes are used, and – among them – baritic concretes containing barite aggregates, with a mass per unit volume from 25 to 50% higher than that of ordinary concrete. Information on the...

X-ray computed tomography proof of bacterial-based self-healing in concrete
Self-healing strategies are regarded as a promising solution to reduce the high maintenance and repair cost of concrete infrastructures. In the present work, a bacterial-based self-healing by use of hydrogel encapsulated bacterial spores (bio-hydrogels) was investigated. The crack closure behaviour of the specimens with/without bio-hydrogels was studied quantitatively by light microscopy. To ha...
Rheology of alkali-activated slag pastes. Effect of the nature and concentration of the activating solution
An understanding of the rheological behaviour of OPC-based products has been widely studied, for it is essential to determining and predicting the fresh and hardened characteristics and properties of pastes, mortars and concretes. The rheology of alkali-activated material (AAM) systems has been much less intensely researched, however. The present study aimed to ascertain the effect of factors s...

Metakaolin-based Inorganic Polymer Composite: Effects of fine aggregate composition and structure on porosity evolution, microstructure and mechanical properties
This paper examines the phase transformation, pore evolution, microstructural and mechanical changes that occur in inorganic polymer cement (IPC) in the presence of three different grade of fine aggregates (ф < 100 μm) of ladle slag, nepheline syenite and quartz sand. Experimental results indicate that polycondensation was enhanced in nepheline syenite based specimens, compared to quar...
Method of quantification of hydrated lime in asphalt mixtures
Hydrated lime has been known as an additive for asphalt mixtures for a long time and is now considered as an additive that increases asphalt mixture durability. It has been extensively used in the past 40years in the USA, and is being increasingly used in most European countries, in particular Austria, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Given this context, it is necess...

Differential belongings: socio-cultural distinctions in suburban residential areas
This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive reflexivity and elective belonging, the paper shows differences in similar residential areas betwe...
Seismic performance and damage evaluation of a reinforced concrete frame with hysteretic dampers through shake-table tests
Passive energy dissipation devices are increasingly implemented in frame structures to improve their performance under seismic loading. Most guidelines for designing this type of system retain the requirements applicable to frames without dampers, and this hinders taking full advantage of the benefits of implementing dampers. Further, assessing the extent of damage suffered by the frame and by ...
Centralized semi-active control of post-tensioned steel frames
Centralized semi-active control is a technique for controlling the whole structure using one main computer. Centralized control systems introduce better control for relatively short to medium high structures where the response of any story cannot be separated from the adjacent ones. In this paper, two centralized control approaches are proposed for controlling the seismic response of post-tensi...
Hygrical shrinkage stresses in tiling systems: Numerical modeling combined with field studies
To track down potential sites of material failure in the tile-mortar-substrate systems, locations and intensities of stress concentrations owing to drying-induced shrinkage are investigated. For this purpose, mechanical properties were measured on real systems and used as input parameters for numerical modeling of the effect of shrinkage of substrate and/or mortar using the finite element code ...