Physics

Joint decision and Naive Bayes learning for detection of space multi-target
In the photoelectric tracking system, the detection of space multi-target is crucial for target localization and tracking. The difficulties include the interferences from CCD smear and strong noise, the few characteristics of spot-like targets and the challenge of multiple targets. In this paper, we propose a hybrid algorithm of joint decision and Naive Bayes (JD-NB) learning, and present the d...


Power spectrum and blood flow velocity images obtained by dual-beam backscatter laser Doppler velocimetry
We developed a micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-MLDV) for noninvasive in-vivo measurements of blood flow and we presented the results of demonstrations performed on experimental animals. In this paper, we investigate the validity of power spectrum analysis for determining the flow velocity and the minimum power of the semiconductor laser in the μ-MLDV. Although average velocity i...
RF spectral modulation caused by delayed interference and photodetection of optical noise
We demonstrate that an RF spectral fringe appears when a nonpolarized optical noise and its delayed replica are combined and photo-detected without any polarization control. A theoretical analysis explains the visibility of the fringe and its insensitivity to polarization.


Transmission properties in a one-dimensional finite extrinsic semiconductor InSb photonic crystal
The properties of wave transmission in a strongly dispersive semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystal (SDPC) are theoretically investigated. We consider a one-dimensional finite SDPC, air/(SD)NS/air, where, N is the stack number, S is an extrinsic semiconductor, n-type InSb (n-InSb), and D is a dielectric layer of SiO2. Transmission peaks can be found in the frequency region where the real par...
Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion
This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure’s shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occ...


Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction
A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensati...
Finite-size effects on the phase transition in a four- and six-fermion interaction model
We consider four- and six-fermion interacting models at finite temperature and density. We construct the corresponding free energies and investigate the appearance of first- and second-order phase transitions. Finite-size effects on the phase structure are investigated using methods of quantum field theory on toroidal topologies.

Giant spin–orbit splitting in ultrathin Ir(111) film
Spin–orbit (SO) splitting in ultrathin Ir(111) film was examined on the basis of density functional theory. The states with giant SO splitting can be found in few-monolayer Ir film terminated by H atoms. They distribute in several bands. From projected wave function study, the giant SO splitting is mainly induced by the p z and d y z states. The origin of this orbital dependen...
A simplified basis for Bell–Kochen–Specker theorems
We show that a reduced form of the structural requirements for deterministic hidden variables used in Bell–Kochen–Specker theorems is already sufficient for the no-go results. Those requirements are captured by the following principle: an observable takes a spectral value x if and only if the spectral projector associated with x takes the value We show that the “only if” part of this co...

Cooling and transport of energetic ions due to the global geodesic acoustic mode
It is shown that (i) the destabilization of global Geodesic Acoustic modes (GAM or E-GAM) by passing energetic ions in tokamaks can be accompanied with a considerable energy transfer from these ions to the mode; (ii) the mode-induced slowing down of the energetic ions leads to a radial shift outwards/inwards of the ions moving in the direction counter-/co-passing the plasma current, in spite of...
Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation
The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively af...

The characteristics of surface arc plasma and its control effect on supersonic flow
The characteristic of surface arc plasma included millisecond and microsecond actuation in supersonic flow is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the discharge characteristic of surface arc plasma in quiescent air and supersonic flow is recorded. The stable oblique shock could be observed with millisecond actuation. And the unstable compressive wave could be als...
Synchronization dynamics of chemically coupled cells with activator–inhibitor pathways
Systems of interacting cells containing an activator–inhibitor pathway, regulating naturally in their inner parts their end-product concentrations through a sequence of biochemical reactions with feedback-loops: an end-product inhibition of the first substrate, and an autocatalytic activation of the end-product through an allosteric enzyme-mediated reaction are investigated. The individual ce...
Two-dimensional ultra-small angle X-ray scattering with grating interferometry
It was recently established that the pixel-wise ultra-small angle x-ray distribution can be retrieved with grating interferometry. However, in these one dimensional approaches the contrast was limited to the direction orthogonal to the structure of the line gratings. Here, we demonstrate that sensitivity in two contrast directions can be achieved by using two pairs of crossed line gratings and ...
In vivo, label-free, three-dimensional quantitative imaging of liver surface using multi-photon microscopy
Various structural features on the liver surface reflect functional changes in the liver. The visualization of these surface features with molecular specificity is of particular relevance to understanding the physiology and diseases of the liver. Using multi-photon microscopy (MPM), we have developed a label-free, three-dimensional quantitative and sensitive method to visualize various structur...