Toxicology

In vitro methods of assessing ocular biocompatibility using THP-1-derived macrophages
Macrophages play an important role in the elimination of infections, the removal of debris and in tissue repair after infection and trauma. In vitro models that assess ocular biomaterials for toxicity typically focus on the effects of these materials on epithelial or fibroblast cells. This investigation evaluated known ocular toxins deposited on model materials for their effects on the viabilit...


Intravitreal bevacizumab effects on VEGF levels in distant organs: an experimental study
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab on the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum and distant organs. Adult New Zealand albino rabbits (n = 40) were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental rabbits received a single 0.05 ml intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab (Avastin) into the right...
Baboon syndrome induced by ketoconazole
A 27-year-old male patient presented with a maculopapular eruption on the flexural areas and buttocks after using oral ketoconazole. The patient was diagnosed with drug-induced baboon syndrome based on his history, which included prior sensitivity to topical ketoconazole, a physical examination, and histopathological findings. Baboon syndrome is a drug- or contact allergen-related maculopapular...


Efficacy and toxicity of antibacterial agents used in wound dressings
Wound dressings have been used to facilitate the process of wound healing. Prevention and/or control of infection in the wound and the surrounding areas has always been an important expectation for these wound dressings. To provide wound dressings that meet such expectations, extensive research efforts have been devoted to the development of wound dressings that are incorporated with various an...
Evaluation of ovarian reserve and function in female patients treated with oral isotretinoin for severe acne: an exploratory study
Isotretinoin affects the levels of female hormones and ovaries in patients with severe acne. This study evaluated the effects of isotretinoin on the ovarian reserve and levels of female hormones in patients with severe acne. Thirty-two female patients with severe acne were enrolled. All the patients were treated with oral isotretinoin 0.5–2 mg/kg/d. The total cumulative dose for a full cour...


Effect of intracameral carbachol in phacoemulsification surgery on macular morphology and retinal vessel caliber
To investigate the effects of intracameral carbachol in phacoemulsification surgery on central macular thickness (CMT), total macular volume (TMV) and retinal vessel caliber (RVC). In this prospective consecutive case series, 82 patients underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation. Unlike patients in the control group (43 eyes), patients in the study gr...
Retinal endoilluminator toxicity of xenon and light-emitting diode (LED) light source: rabbit model
This study evaluates retinal toxicity due to endoillumination with the light-emitting diode (LED) light source in comparison to endoillumination with xenon light source. Material and methods: Twenty-five eyes of 14 New Zealand pigmented rabbits were used in the study. The LED light (Omesis Medical Systems, Turkey) group was composed of 7 right eyes, while the other 7 right eyes constituted the ...

Transient corneal endothelial changes following accelerated collagen cross-linking for the treatment of progressive keratoconus
To evaluate the corneal endothelial changes following accelerated collagen cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus. Thirty-six consecutive progressive keratoconus patients who received accelerated CXL treatment were enrolled in the study. Following de-epithelization, isoosmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution without dextran was instilled every 3 min throughout the 30 min ...
Effects of hydrogen peroxide on mucociliary transport in human airway epithelial cells
The effects of environmental pollutants on airway clearance have not been well elucidated. This study examined mucociliary transport using different sized-fluorescent particles on polarized human airway epithelial cells which were maintained in an air–liquid interface (ALI) culture system. The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure on mucociliary transport were also investigated. The mo...

Testicular Distribution and Toxicity of a Novel LTA4H Inhibitor in Rats
Jnj 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of jnj 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole bod...
Toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone and of mixtures of citrinin and ochratoxin A in vitro
Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Monascus. Both can be present as contaminants in various food commodities and in animal feed. The occurrence and toxicity of OTA and human exposure have been intensively studied, but for CIT such data are scarce by comparison. Recently, dihydrocitrinone (DH-CIT) was detect...

Massive Naproxen Overdose with Serial Serum Levels
Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal v...
Carbamazepine-exposure during gestation and lactation affects pubertal onset and spermatic parameters in male pubertal offspring
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anti-epileptic drug that acts on Leydig cells, affecting steroidogenesis and causes fetal malformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CBZ on male sexual maturation and other male parameters. Rat dams were treated with CBZ during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The anogenital distance (AGD) and the anogenital index (AGI) were obtained. Testicular ...
Prepubertal bisphenol A exposure interferes with ovarian follicle development and its relevant gene expression
Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as one of several environmental estrogens. Pre-puberty is an important part of reproductive system development, and even a short-term exposure to BPA during this period may cause serious damage to the reproductive system. In this study, Pre-puberty female Wistar rats were exposed to BPA for one week. The effects of BPA on ovarian structure and function were asses...
Environmental pollutants and dysregulation of male puberty—A comparison among species
The scientific literature on altered onset of puberty predominantly involves studies on females. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of environmental pollutants in dysregulation of male puberty in humans, laboratory rodents and farm animals. The methods used to determine the onset of puberty are well developed in humans and farm animals, and standardized across studies in humans. I...