Toxicology

Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico
The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10−8 M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10−8 M), under a 12 h:12 h day–night cycle with an irrad...


Effects of microcystin-LR on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth, oxidative stress and apoptosis
Microcystins (MC) are cyanotoxins occurring globally, known for causing acute hepatotoxicity in humans/animals, tumor promotion in animals and potential carcinogenicity. The mechanism of MC toxicity is considered a multi-pathway process involving the inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/PP2A and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, their mechanism of action is not fully c...
Induction of Complementary Function Reductase Enzymes in Colon Cancer Cells by Dithiole-3-thione versus Sodium Selenite
Cellular induction of reductase enzymes can alter the susceptibility of cells toward drugs and chemicals. In this study, we compared the capacity of a single dose of sodium selenite and 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) to influence the drug-relevant reducing capacity of HT29 cells over time, and defined the protein-specific contribution to this activity on the basis of selected reaction monitorin...


Protective effects of ascorbic acid against the genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by 3,5-dimethylaminophenol in AA8 cells
Exposure to monocyclic aromatic alkylanilines (MAAs), namely 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA), 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) and 3-ethylaniline (3-EA), was significantly and independently associated with bladder cancer incidence. 3,5-DMAP (3,5-dimethylaminophenol), a metabolite of 3,5-DMA, was shown to induce an imbalance in cytotoxicity cellular antioxidant/oxidant status, and DNA damage in mamma...
Carnosic acid induces autophagic cell death through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway in human hepatoma cells
The therapeutic goal of cancer treatment is now geared towards triggering tumour-selective cell death with autophagic cell death being required for the chemotherapy of apoptosis-resistant cancer. In this study, Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), significantly induced autophagic cell death in HepG2 cells. Ca treatment caused the formati...


Hydrophobic sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals doped with lanthanide ions: assessment of in vitro toxicity to human blood lymphocytes and phagocytes
In vitro immunotoxicity of hydrophobic sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals (NCs) doped with lanthanide ions was examined in this study. Although there is already a significant amount of optical and structural data on NaYF4 NCs, data on safety assessment are missing. Therefore, peripheral whole blood from human volunteers was used to evaluate the effect of 25 and 30 nm hydrophobic NaYF4 NCs disso...
Quantitative cancer risk of aflatoxin in peanut butter and vegetable oils: Sudan case study
The cancer risk attributed to aflatoxin in peanut butter and vegetable oils for Sudanese population have been estimated. To quantify, we considered: (i) the literature studied the presence of aflatoxin in these commodities, (ii) the provisional tolerable daily intake and (iii) the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The annual hepatocellular carcinoma cases were found to be from 155.82 t...

The in vitro biokinetics of chlorpromazine and diazepam in aggregating rat brain cell cultures after repeated exposure
Neurotoxic effects of compounds can be tested in vitro using cell systems. One example is aggregating rat brain cell cultures. For the extrapolation of in vitro data to the in vivo situation, it is important to take the biokinetics of the test compound into account. In addition, the exposure in vivo is often for a longer period of time; therefore, it is crucial to incorporate this into in vitro...
The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: I. Background, experimental strategy and critique
The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by exposing rodents ...

The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition–concentration–response database of mice exp...
Nano-titanium dioxide bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells: Investigating crystalline phase as a critical determinant
There can be significant variability between bioreactivity studies of nanomaterials that are apparently the same, possibly reflecting differences in the models used and differing sources of experimental material. In this study, we have generated two crystal forms of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), pure anatase and pure rutile to address the hypothesis that the bioreactivity of these...

Acute toxicity of karlotoxins to mice
Karlotoxins, polyketide derivatives produced by the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum, are associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries world-wide. In this study, the acute effects of 3 pure karlotoxin analogs (KmTx 1, KmTx 3 and KmTx 2) have been examined in mice. Transient lethargy and increased respiratory rates were observed soon after dosing with the karlotoxins by intraperitoneal ...
Melatonin Improves Mitochondrial Function by Promoting MT1/SIRT1/PGC-1 Alpha-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Cadmium-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Vitro
Melatonin is an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland that has a wide range of physiological functions, and it has been under clinical investigation for expanded applications. Increasing evidence demonstrates that melatonin can ameliorate cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the potentially protective effects of melatonin against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechan...
Stable Isotope Labeling Method for the Investigation of Protein Haptenation by Electrophilic Skin Sensitizers
The risk of contact sensitization is a major consideration in the development of new formulations for personal care products. However, developing a mechanistic approach for non-animal risk assessment requires further understanding of haptenation of skin proteins by sensitizing chemicals, which is the molecular initiating event causative of skin sensitization. The non-stoichiometric nature of pr...
Comparison of Anorectic and Emetic Potencies of Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin) to the Plant Metabolite Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside and Synthetic Deoxynivalenol Derivatives EN139528 and EN139544
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) elicits robust anorectic and emetic effects in several animal species. However, less is known about the potential for naturally-occurring and synthetic congeners of this trichothecene to cause analogous responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that alterations in DON structure found in the plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) and two pharmacologic...