Toxicology

Rear-fanged snake venoms: an untapped source of novel compounds and potential drug leads
Animal venoms represent a diverse source of potentially valuable therapeutic compounds due to the high specificity and the potent biological activity of many toxins. Snake venom toxins, particularly disintegrins and proteases from viper venoms, have yielded therapeutics with anti-cancer and hemostatic dysfunction activities. However, venoms from rear-fanged “colubrid” snakes have rarely bee...


Arsenic methylation capacity is associated with breast cancer in northern Mexico
Exposure to environmental contaminants, dietary factors and lifestyles may explain worldwide different breast cancer (BC) incidence. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the drinking water is a concern in many regions, such as northern Mexico. Studies in several countries have associated the proportion of urinary monomethylarsenic (%MMA) with increased risks for many As-related diseases, including cancer...
Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin
Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this ...


Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis
Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human pr...
Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death
Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1-100μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via activation of caspase-3 in neurob...


Chronic nandrolone administration promotes oxidative stress, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine and TNF-α mediated apoptosis in the kidneys of CD1 treated mice
Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. Cytosolic enzyme activity glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA), wer...
Derivation of PM10 size-selected human equivalent concentrations of inhaled nickel based on cancer and non-cancer effects on the respiratory tract
Nickel (Ni) in ambient air is predominantly present in the form of oxides and sulfates, with the distribution of Ni mass between the fine (particle aerodynamic diameter ...

Glutathione-Mediated Detoxification of Halobenzoquinone Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts in T24 Cells
Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a new class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and are capable of producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to proteins and DNA in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. However, the exact mechanism of the cytotoxicity of HBQs is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes including glutathione ...
In Vivo Interactions Between Cobalt or Ferric Compounds and the Pools of Sulphide in the Blood During and After H2S Poisoning
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a chemical hazard in oil and gas production, has recently become a dreadful method of suicide, posing specific risks and challenges for the first responders. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment against H2S poisoning and its severe neurological, respiratory or cardiac after-effects. We have recently described that H2S is present in various compartments, or ...

Evidences of endocytosis via caveolae following blood–brain barrier breakdown by Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom
Spider venoms contain neurotoxic peptides aimed at paralyzing prey or for defense against predators; that is why they represent valuable tools for studies in neuroscience field. The present study aimed at identifying the process of internalization that occurs during the increased trafficking of vesicles caused by Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom (PNV)-induced blood–brain barrier (BBB) brea...
In vitro and in vivo induction of cytochrome P450 by coplanar polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) providing high TEQ in mother’s milk in Japan
Coplanar polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) are environmental pollutants previously identified in market fish samples. In this study, we observed that mother’s milk in Japan is contaminated with Co-PXBs. Based on assumption that the toxicity of the same congener of PXDDs/DFs and Co-PXBs is nearly equal to that of the corresponding PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs, respectively, the toxic equ...

A proposal to improve clarity and communication in the EU Classification process for chemicals for carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity
There is an issue in the EU classification of substances for carcinogenicity and for reproductive or developmental toxicity which has brought difficulties to those involved in the process. The issue lies in the inability of the classification system to distinguish between carcinogens and reproductive toxicants with different levels of concern. This has its origins in the early years of toxicolo...
Diisocyanates, occupational asthma and IgE antibody: implications for hazard characterization
Sensitization of the respiratory tract by chemicals resulting in rhinitis and asthma is an important occupational health issue. Occupational asthma is associated with significant morbidity and can be fatal. Tests for the identification and characterization of chemicals with the potential to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract are lacking. In spite of sustained interest there are no val...
A cohort study of toner-handling workers on inflammatory, allergic, and oxidative stress markers: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from 2003 to 2008
This study examines the relationship between toner exposure and its health effects in terms of biomarkers which are known to assess the damages to humans caused by toxic material exposure. The subjects were 1504 male workers aged below 50 in 2003 in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company. Personal exposure measurements, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examinations, biomark...
Methylphenidate misuse in adult patients and the impact of therapeutic use
Methylphenidate (MPH) prescription rates for adults increase, but the extent of a parallel rise in toxic exposures and their causes and distribution between different MPH trade names are unexplored. We retrospectively analyzed adult MPH exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre from January 2006 to July 2012 and the association with MPH sales and the number of patients prescrib...