Biochemistry

Reversibly Dispersible/Collectable Metal-Organic Frameworks Prepared by Grafting Thermally Responsive and Switchable Polymers
A reversibly dispersible/collectable metal-organic framework (MOF) system has been developed. The MOF particles were modified by grafting the thermally switchable copolymers of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate and oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate through a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) approach. The resulted MOF materials preserved their original frame...


Hypoglycemic effect of catalpol on high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis
Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, exists in the root of Radix Rehmanniae. Some studies have shown that catalpol has a remarkable hypoglycemic effect in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic model, but the underlying mechanism for this effect has not been fully elucidated. Because mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the pathology of diabetes and because improving mitochondrial function m...
Hydrophobic Triaryl-Substituted β-Lactams as Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Eukaryotic Enzymes and Host–Pathogen Interactions
ABPP with β-lactams: We identified the eukaryotic targets of β-lactam-containing compounds by activity-based protein profiling. Using this method, we demonstrated that β-lactam-based activity probes can be applied to identify differentially active enzymes in different cell lines and during hepatitis C virus replication.


Expanded Genetic Code Technologies for Incorporating Modified Lysine at Multiple Sites
Protein engineering: Recent methods that enable site-specific installation of naturally occurring modified lysine at multiple sites in proteins are reviewed. Combinations of genetic-code expansion, genome engineering and protein engineering are promising for homogenous and large-scale preparations of proteins with multiple and site-specific lysine modifications that would facilitate analyses of...
Effect of internal and external conditions on ionization processes in the FAPA ambient desorption/ionization source
Ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) offer outstanding analytical features: direct analysis of real samples without sample pretreatment, combined with the selectivity and sensitivity of MS. Since ADI sources typically work in the open atmosphere, ambient conditions can affect the desorption and ionization processes. Here, the effects of internal source p...


Tracer Diffusion in Heterogeneous Polymer Networks
The diffusion of linear polymer chains in swollen polymer networks is studied with different extents of spatial heterogeneity of their crosslinking density. Structural heterogeneity is imparted to these gels by photo-crosslinking of polymer precursor chains in semidilute solution, which comprise either just one batch of precursors, yielding gels with just a little spatial heterogeneity, or mixt...
Metallo-Supramolecular Nanogels for Intracellular pH-Responsive Drug Release
A simple process is developed to fabricate metallo-supramolecular nanogels (MSNs) by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between histidine and iron-meso-tetraphenylporphin. MSNs are composed of histidine-modified dextran (DH) and iron-meso-tetraphenylporphin (Fe–Por) and exhibit excellent biocompatibility and stability. MSNs show pH responsiveness in the intracellular mildly ac...

Strategy for Good Dispersion of Well-Defined Tetrapods in Semiconducting Polymer Matrices
The morphology or dispersion control in inorganic/organic hybrid systems is studied, which consist of monodisperse CdSe tetrapods (TPs) with grafted semiconducting block copolymers with excess polymers of the same type. Tetrapod arm-length and amount of polymer loading are varied in order to find the ideal morphology for hybrid solar cells. Additionally, polymers without anchor groups are mixed...
Oxygen–Nitrogen Switchable Copolymers of 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl Methacrylate and N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate
In this work, a novel class of O2/N2 switchable polymers is reported, which is prepared by atom transfer radical copolymerization (ATRcoP) of commercially available 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (FMA) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA). The copolymer is random and contains 10 FMA units and 85 DMA units. Its aqueous solution becomes transparent with O2 bubbling and turns to turbid...

Breath Figures of Nanoscale Bricks: A Universal Method for Creating Hierarchic Porous Materials from Inorganic Nanoparticles Stabilized with Mussel-Inspired Copolymers
High-performance catalysts and photovoltaics are required for building an environmentally sustainable society. Because catalytic and photovoltaic reactions occur at the interfaces between reactants and surfaces, the chemical, physical, and structural properties of interfaces have been the focus of much research. To improve the performance of these materials further, inorganic porous materials w...
Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Fill Time on the Biohydrogen Production in a Mechanically Stirred AnSBBR Treating Synthetic Sucrose-Based Wastewater
This study investigated the feasibility to produce biohydrogen of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating sucrose-based synthetic wastewater. The bioreactor performance (30 °C) was evaluated as to the combined effect of fill time (2, 1.5, and 1 h), cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), influent concentration (3,500 and 5,250 mg chemical oxygen demand (CO...

Structural Insights into Rice Straw Pretreated by Hot-Compressed Water in Relation to Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Pretreatment-induced structural alteration is critical in influencing the rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. The present work has investigated structural features of rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water (HCW) from 140 to 240 °C for 10 or 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis profiles of pretreated rice straw. Compositional profiles of pretreated rice...
Paraplantaricin L-ZB1, a Novel Bacteriocin and Its Application as a Biopreservative Agent on Quality and Shelf Life of Rainbow Trout Fillets Stored at 4 °C
Paraplantaricin L-ZB1 was produced by Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZB1, which was isolated from the traditional China fermented sausage. In this work, paraplantaricin L-ZB1 was used to maintain quality of rainbow trout fillets at 4 °C. Rainbow trout fillets were left untreated (CK) or treated with 200 activity units (AU)/ml paraplantaricin L-ZB1 (P1), 400 AU/ml paraplantaricin L-ZB1 (P2) or...
Inhibition of Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase by tryptophan homologues
We have designed, synthesized and evaluated homotryptophan analogues as possible mechanism-based inhibitors for Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase (tryptophanase, TIL, E. C. 4.1.99.1). As a quinonoid structure is an intermediate in the reaction mechanism of TIL, we anticipated that homologation of the physiological substrate, l-Trp would provide analogues resembling the transition state f...
Biophysical and structural characterization of a folded core domain within the proregion of Growth and Differentiation Factor-5 (GDF5)
Structure and function(s) of the very large proregions of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) structure family are only known in a few cases. The proregion of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) comprises 354 residues. GDF5 therefore belongs to those growth factors with the largest proregions. Here, we report a biophysical analysis of the proform (proGDF5) and the separate proregi...