Ecology

A mathematical approach to simulate spatio-temporal patterns of an insect-pest, the corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in intercropping systems
We report on the use of a spatially explicit model and clustering analysis in order to investigate habitat manipulation as a strategy to regulate natural population densities of the insect-pest Diabrotica speciosa. Habitat manipulation involved four major agricultural plants used as hosts by this herbivore to compose intercropping landscapes. Available biological parameters for D. speciosa on b...


Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands
1. As a rule, communities consist of few abundant and many rare species, which is reflected in the characteristic shape of species abundance distributions (SADs). The processes that shape these SADs have been a longstanding problem for ecological research. Although many studies found strong negative effects of increasing land-use intensity on diversity, few reports consider land-use effects on ...
Does a sap feeding marsupial choose trees with specific chemical characteristics?
Only about 20 vertebrate species are known to feed regularly on tree sap. One of these is the yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis), a marsupial that obtains between 16% and 80% of its diet from eucalypt sap. We reviewed the literature on sap feeding by the yellow-bellied glider and identified 10 species from which it most frequently obtains sap. These species come mainly from a few sectio...


Competitive dominance in the organisation of Mediterranean ant communities
Competition by dominant species is thought to be key to structuring ant communities. However, recent findings suggest that the effect of dominant species on communities is less pronounced than previously assumed.2. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of dominant ants in the organisation of Mediterranean communities, particularly the role of competition in invaded and uninvaded...
The metabolic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) affects the outcome of intra-specific competition in a polyembryonic wasp
Polyembryonic parasitoid wasps in the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) have evolved a caste system consisting of morphologically and functionally distinct larvae called soldiers and reproductives.2. Two selective pressures are thought to underlie the evolution of the soldier caste: defence against competitors and resolution of the sex ratio conflict. Previous studies also indicate that soldier d...


A hydrologic tracer study in a small, natural wetland in the humid tropics of Costa Rica
Growing populations and food demand in the tropics are leading to increased environmental pressures on wetland ecosystems, including a greater reliance on natural wetlands for water quality improvement. Effective assessment of wetland treatment potential requires an improved understanding of the hydraulic and biogeochemical factors that govern contaminant behavior, however detailed studies of f...
Interactions among nitrogen fixation and soil phosphorus acquisition strategies in lowland tropical rain forests
Paradoxically, symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixers are abundant in nitrogen (N)-rich, phosphorus (P)-poor lowland tropical rain forests. One hypothesis to explain this pattern states that N2 fixers have an advantage in acquiring soil P by producing more N-rich enzymes (phosphatases) that mineralise organic P than non-N2 fixers. We assessed soil and root phosphatase activity between fixers and non-...

Sustainable harvest of a native species and control of an invasive species: A bioeconomic model of a commercial fishery invaded by a space competitor
Biological invasions are nowadays an important challenge to biodiversity and human welfare. This paper deals with the control of an invasive species, void of market value, and acting as a space competitor for a valuable native harvested species. It presents a theoretical bioeconomic model describing the interacting dynamics of the two species and accounting for the undesirable consequences of n...
Persuasive communication aimed at achieving wildlife-disease management goals
Achieving an adequate hunter harvest of game animals that meets wildlife-disease management objectives is a challenge if hunters perceive too few animals relative to expectations. Persuasive communication is a strategy commonly used to influence human perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors in public health. Research on effectiveness of persuasive communication in the context of wildlife-disease ...

Bridging the knowing–doing gap: know-who, know-what, know-why, know-how and know-when
1. A widely recognised challenge in applied ecology is the gap between the knowledge generated by scientists and uptake by practitioners. Bridging this gap requires reciprocal and iterative flows of information from both scientists and practitioners prior to research initiation and beyond its completion. Yet current approaches to knowledge exchange ignore the complexity of translating different...
Protective nesting association between the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio: an experiment using artificial and natural nests
The pressure of predators may significantly affects the distribution pattern of nesting birds. Some individuals may reduce the risk of predation by nesting near other species with an aggressive nest defence. In the present study I tested the predator protection hypothesis using experimental (artificial nests) and observational (real nests) approaches on two ecologically similar passerine birdsâ...

Seasonal nutrient distribution in the Rupsha-Passur tidal river system of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh
The Rupsha-Passur River System (RS) is one of the biggest and important river systems in the Sundarbans estuarine ecosystem. It is the largest fresh water supplier into this mangrove forest. A comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate the tidal and seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations (nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and ammonia) of the RS during October, 2010 (Post monsoon), Februa...
Range expansion and comparative habitat use of insular, congeneric lagomorphs: invasive European hares Lepus europaeus and endemic Irish hares Lepus timidus hibernicus
The European hare (Lepus europaeus) has declined throughout its native range but invaded numerous regions where it has negatively impacted native wildlife. In southern Sweden, it replaces the native mountain hare (L. timidus) through competition and hybridisation. We investigated temporal change in the invasive range of the European hare in Ireland, and compared its habitat use with the endemic...
Beyond Energy
This article is based on the first study worldwide to analyze materials present in the equipment of data centers. The study develops a methodology that allows the calculation of the number of data centers of the various size classes and their average equipment with information technology (IT) components and infrastructure elements, such as air-conditioning systems and power supplies. This enabl...
Securing a Competitive Advantage through Industrial Symbiosis Development
Hyosung Yongyeon PlantsPlant I: Operated since 1991Plant II: Operated since 1997Plant III: Built in 2009Organization type: Production facilities of Hyosung, a public companyHeadquarters: Seoul, Republic of KoreaIndustries: ChemicalPlant I: Polypropylene (PP)Plant II: TPA (purified terephthalic acid)Plant III: Optical TAC (cellulose triacetate) filmEmployees: 450Annual production:Plant I: 300,00...