Ecology

Loss of heterosis and family-dependent inbreeding depression in plant performance and resistance against multiple herbivores under drought stress
Inbreeding depression (ID), outbreeding depression (OD) and heterosis can occur concurrently in plant populations. ID often increases under environmental stress, but the combined effects of inbreeding, outbreeding between populations and environmental stress, such as drought, on plant performance and herbivore resistance remain unclear.2. In order to determine environment-dependent and family-d...


Structure and composition of snake assemblages across three types of plantation in south-eastern Nigeria
Assemblage structure, diversity measures and diversity/dominance patterns of snakes were studied between 1996 and 2013 in three types of plantation in the Niger River delta of southern Nigeria. The investigated plantation types were pineapple, banana/plantain, and cassava/yam. Over 74% of the census species (n = 27) were found in all three plantation types, with, overall, just two singletons ...
Diurnal activity patterns and feeding ecology of the endemic geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
Diurnal activity patterns and feeding ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in Chenek, Simien Mountains National Park, were studied from January 2010 to April 2010. Data were gathered for 7 days per month starting from early in the morning to dusk. The study site (1805 ha) was divided into five blocks and a total of 397 individuals were counted using simultaneous census method. One band w...


Leadership of herd progressions in the Thornicroft's giraffe of Zambia
In cohesive social groups, travel progressions are often led by dominant or older individuals, but the leadership traits of individuals residing in flexible social systems are poorly known. Giraffe reside in herds characterized by fission–fusion dynamics frequently mediated by kinship. We analyzed 41 years (1971–2012) of longitudinal data collected from a community of Thornicroft's giraffe...
The challenge of interpreting primate diets: mangabey foraging on Blighia unijugata fruit in relation to changing nutrient content
Primates often make foraging selections that are not apparent. For example, they may eagerly consume a particular plant part and species in some instances, but reject it at other times. Blighia unijugata (Baker) fruit is one of the most frequently eaten foods of mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) in Lwamunda Forest Reserve, Uganda; however, its use varies strikingly depending on the fruit's develo...


Aspects of community ecology of reptiles in the swamp forests of the Upper Orashi Forest Reserve (Niger Delta, Nigeria)
The study of community composition shifts due to increased habitat modifications and deforestation is a primary issue in contemporary tropical community ecology theory. As the forest habitat conversion process has been very short in Africa relative to the evolutionary temporal scale, it is likely that animal communities are not at an equilibrium. The Upper Orashi Forest Reserve (Niger Delta reg...
Buen Vivir (living well) in Ecuador: Community and environmental satisfaction without household material prosperity?
This paper provides a quantitative approach to assessing whether the subjective wellbeing (SWB) of Ecuadorian people is dependent on income and employment or on more distinctive features relating to Buen Vivir ethos. The latter are reflected in the indigenous Buen Vivir ideology, based mainly on relations with the community, the environment and food sovereignty. The empirical analysis shows tha...

Assessment of uncertainties of an aircraft-based mass balance approach for quantifying urban greenhouse gas emissions
Urban environments are the primary contributors to global anthropogeniccarbon emissions. Because much of the growth in CO2 emissions willoriginate from cities, there is a need to develop, assess, and improvemeasurement and modeling strategies for quantifying and monitoringgreenhouse gas emissions from large urban centers. In this study theuncertainties in an aircraft-based mass balance approach...
Addition of structural complexity – contrasting effect on juvenile brown trout in a natural stream
In a field experiment, we examined the effects of structural complexity in the form of added artificial plastic plants and shredded plastic bags on growth and abundance of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Just after emergence, the added complexity had a positive effect on the density, biomass and condition factor of young-of-the-year (0+) brown trout. This difference in density was not pres...

Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history
Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression pat...
Comparative study of urban ecology development in the U.S. and China: Opportunity and Challenge
As human society has entered the century of the city, studies of urban ecosystems have shown a booming increase since the beginning of the 21st century. Urban ecology aims to fully understand the problems and find the solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized planet. As typical representatives of developed and developing nations, the U. S. and China are experiencing di...

Competition and Fundamental Rights Survey
This survey covers the case law from Luxembourg and Strasbourg on fundamental rights and competition law from 2013. It extends to fundamental rights cases which do not directly concern competition law but are likely to have an impact on it. Arguably, the most novel developments relate to requests for access to documents submitted with a leniency application (Donau Chemie, Energie Baden-Wür...
The European Commission's Approach to Long-term Contracts: an Economist's View
In recent decisions, the Commission has taken a hard stance vis-à-vis dominant firms using long-term contracts which, it contended, deterred rivals from effectively competing on relevant markets. Yet long-term contracts may have procompetitive effects pleading in favour of a fine-tuned enforcement.
Private Enforcement of Competition Laws: What Can We Learn from Canada?
Canadian courts have recently issued a handful of important decisions concerning public and private cartel enforcement. Those decisions have not considered in detail how public and private cartel enforcement should work in tandem. In considering these questions in the future, Canadian courts should consider the recent efforts of the European Commission in proposing rules that seek to optimize t...
Lobbying Activities and EU Competition Law: What Can be Done and How?
In the last years, the number of proposals for new regulations impacting competition has dramatically increased with a view to recover from the financial crisis, open up markets and further increase the protection of consumers. This has caused a significanty growth and complexification of lobbying activities and strategies in the field of competition law-with tactics including stakeholder mappi...