Ecology

The development of accelerated test methods to evaluate the durability of framing timber
Various accelerated decay resistance trials, including small simulated wall units, samples exposed in enclosed tanks and ‘I’ samples in stacks, have been explored and used to test the durability of treated and untreated radiata pine framing at Scion since 200These testing methods have been established to determine the effectiveness of commercial formulations in preventing decay in framing s...


Reproductive and growth strategies of Idotea balthica basteri (Pallas, 1772) population in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean)
We analysed several life history traits of the marine isopod Idotea balthica basteri (Pallas, 1772) from the Bizerte lagoon, Southern Mediterranean Sea. Growth was continuous throughout the life of the animal with a high growth rate in the first life phase, and the growth curve was described according to von Bertalanffy's model. The lowest growth rate (0.23 mm) was recorded in winter (December...
Effects of a spatial closure on highly mobile fish species: an assessment using pelagic stereo-BRUVs
The effects of a spatial area closure on pelagic fish assemblages within the Houtman Abrolhos Islands were assessed using mid-water pelagic stereo-BRUVs. The spatial area closure within the Easter group of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands was found to have no significant effect on the species composition and relative abundance of pelagic fish assemblages. The most abundant demersal target species r...


Temporal variation in richness and composition of recruits in a diverse cnidarian assemblage of subtropical Brazil
Many studies have shown that the processes of colonization of new marine substrata, from settlement to recruitment, can leave long and lasting signals on the richness, composition and general structure of natural epifaunal assemblages. Systematic descriptions of temporal variability in patterns of richness and structure of recruits are scarce, partly because of logistical difficulties of workin...
Reintroduction of Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Xinjiang, China: The status and experience
Przewalski’s horse reintroductions to Xinjiang, China were initiated in 1985. Here, we present the first data on population development and current problems of the Przewalski’s horse in both captive and released populations in Xinjiang. From 1985 to 2005, a total of 24 captive Przewalski’s horses (14 males and 10 females) were brought from western zoos to the Jimsar Wild Horse Breeding Ce...


Insight into distribution patterns and conservation planning in relation to woody species diversity in Xinjiang, arid northwestern China
Plant species play an important role in maintaining the stability of arid ecosystems. Due to low biodiversity, species distribution patterns and richness are infrequently investigated in arid lands. Here, we take the Xinjiang Urgur Autonomous Region (Province), a large area in arid northwest China, as a case to investigate the patterns of woody species diversity and their relationship to enviro...
Spatial risk model and mitigation implications for wolf–human conflict in a highly modified agroecosystem in western Iran
Human–carnivore conflict is hampering carnivore conservation worldwide. Conflicts between humans and wolves (Canis lupus) in western Iran, especially Hamedan province (HP), occur in the form of livestock depredation and predatory attacks on people. These conflicts have become a major concern for the lives and livelihoods of the local people as well as an obstacle for conservation of the wolf....

Recolonizing sea otters spatially segregate from pinnipeds on the Canadian Pacific coastline: The implications of segregation for species conservation
The reintroduction and recolonization of species extirpated from former ranges are key components of species conservation. Resource availability affects recolonization success and resulting distribution patterns, but top-down processes may also play a role through density-mediated or trait-mediated indirect effects that may exclude a species from otherwise suitable habitat. We predicted that th...
Hormonal mediation of a carry-over effect in a wild cooperative mammal
Recent research has shown that parental investment in one breeding attempt often has a profound negative impact on the level of parental investment in subsequent breeding attempts. However, the mechanistic underpinnings that mediate such carry-over effects are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesise that carry-over effects arise because energetic losses lead to elevated levels of glucocorticoid...

Assessing Symbiodinium diversity in scleractinian corals via next-generation sequencing-based genotyping of the ITS2 rDNA region
The persistence of coral reef ecosystems relies on the symbiotic relationship between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Genetic evidence indicates that these symbionts are biologically diverse and exhibit discrete patterns of environmental and host distribution. This makes the assessment of Symbiodinium diversity critical to unders...
Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA
Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A ...

How detectable is predation in stage-structured populations? Insights from a simulation-testing analysis
The potential of predation to structure marine food webs is widely acknowledged. However, available tools to detect the regulation of prey population dynamics by predation are limited, partly because available population data often aggregate a population's age structure into a single biomass or abundance metric. Additionally, many food webs are relatively complex, with prey species subject to d...
You shall not pass!”: quantifying barrier permeability and proximity avoidance by animals
Impediments to animal movement are ubiquitous and vary widely in both scale and permeability. It is essential to understand how impediments alter ecological dynamics via their influence on animal behavioural strategies governing space use and, for anthropogenic features such as roads and fences, how to mitigate these effects to effectively manage species and landscapes.2. Here, we focused prima...
Accounting for the space-varying nature of the relationships between temporal community turnover and the environment
Non-spatial regression models are rarely adequate for exploring ecological phenomena, especially in settings where the processes operate at large spatial scales and when model covariates do not explain all variation present in the outcome variable. Given the complexity of ecological processes, it is often unrealistic to assume a set of stationary regression coefficients can capture space-varyin...
Ecological biogeography of Mexican bats: the relative contributions of habitat heterogeneity, beta diversity, and environmental gradients to species richness and composition patterns
Mexico has higher mammalian diversity than expected for its size and geographic position. High environmental hetero geneity throughout Mexico is hypothesized to promote high turnover rates (β-diversity), thus contributing more to observed species richness and composition than within-habitat (α) diversity. This is true if species are strongly associated with their environments, such that chang...