Ecology

Natural licks are required for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riparian forest, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia
Although the importance of natural licks for terrestrial mammals is widely acknowledged, we report here for the first time its importance for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riverine forest in Borneo. Our results clearly demonstrated that various mammals, including bearded pig, sambar deer, and endangered orang-utans, were using the natural lick, though large arboreal/avian herbivore/om...


Seasonal pattern and induction cues of diel vertical migration of Chaoborus flavicans in Lake Fukami-ike, Nagano, Japan
Diel vertical migration (DVM), which is a well-known behavior of planktonic organisms, is influenced by several factors, including predation, ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and food. The larvae of Chaoborus (Diptera) exhibit DVM in lakes and ponds. However, it is unclear whether the DVM of Chaoborus larvae changes seasonally and whether induction cues influence the seasonal pattern of DVM....
Relationships among plant genetics, phytochemistry and herbivory patterns in Quercus castanea across a fragmented landscape
Herbivorous insects respond to the chemical variation of their host plants which, in turn, usually has a genetic component. Therefore, it is expected that individual host plants with similar genotypes will have similar secondary chemistries and herbivore communities. However, natural or anthropogenic environmental variation can also influence secondary chemistry and herbivore abundance and comp...


The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation
The term ‘Anthropocene’ was first used in the year 2000 to refer to the current time period in which human impacts are at least as important as natural processes. It is currently being considered as a potential geological epoch, following on from the Holocene. While most environmental scientists accept that many key environmental parameters are now outside their Holocene ranges, there is no...
Genetic rescue to the rescue
Genetic rescue can increase the fitness of small, imperiled populations via immigration. A suite of studies from the past decade highlights the value of genetic rescue in increasing population fitness. Nonetheless, genetic rescue has not been widely applied to conserve many of the threatened populations that it could benefit. In this review, we highlight recent studies of genetic rescue and pla...


The application of oyster and seagrass models to evaluate alternative inflow scenarios related to Everglades restoration
The South Florida landscape is highly engineered featuring ∼3380km of canals, ∼1225 water control structures, >70 pumping stations, managed wetlands, densely populated coastal watersheds, and impacted estuaries. Landscape scale agricultural and urban modifications require flood control which sometimes results in the release of excess freshwater that potentially damages estuarine ecol...
Assessing size–class dynamics of a neotropical gallery forest with stationary models
We used stationary matrix models to assess size–class dynamics of a protected neotropical gallery forest in Central Brazil, and tested their predictive capacity for different calibration periods. Data series comprised of all trees (with diameter≥10cm) registered in 151 (10m×20m) permanent plots in the years of 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009. Demographic and diameter growth ra...

Untangling interacting mechanisms of seed mass variation with elevation: insights from the comparison of inter-specific and intra-specific studies on eastern Tibetan angiosperm species
With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments (“stress-tolerance” mechanism) or smaller due to energy constraints. Based on the combination of inter- and intra-specific analyses on 4,023 populations of 320 Tibetan plant species, we found an overall positive within species but nega...
Chemistry and mineralogy of clay minerals in Asian and Saharan dusts and the implications for iron supply to the oceans
Mineral dust supplied to remote ocean regions stimulatesphytoplankton growth through delivery of micronutrients, notably iron (Fe). Although attention is usually paid to Fe (hydr)oxides as major sources ofavailable Fe, Fe-bearing clay minerals are typically the dominant phase inmineral dust. The mineralogy and chemistry of clay minerals in dustparticles, however, are largely unknown. We conduct...

A new parameterization of particle dry deposition over rough surfaces
In existing particle dry deposition schemes, the effectsof gravity and surface roughness elements on particle motion are oftenpoorly represented. In this study, we propose a new scheme to overcome suchdeficiencies. Particle deposition velocity is a function of aerodynamic,surface-collection and gravitational resistances. In this study, the effectof gravitation settling is treated analytically. ...
Low temperatures enhance organic nitrate formation: evidence from observations in the 2012 Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs) weremeasured using thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence during the2012 Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) in Utah, USA. The observedNO2 concentration was highest before sunrise and lowest in the lateafternoon, suggestive of a persistent local source of NO2 coupled withturbulent mixing out of the boundary layer. In contrast,...

Modeling of gaseous methylamines in the global atmosphere: impacts of oxidation and aerosol uptake
Gaseous amines have attracted increasing attention due totheir potential role in enhancing particle nucleation and growth andaffecting secondary organic aerosol formation. Here we study with achemistry transport model the global distributions of the most common andabundant amines in the air: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), andtrimethylamine (TMA). We show that gas phase oxidation an...
Modelled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbatesglobal warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However,the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BCconcentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long-range transport andprocesses affecting BC atmospheric li...
Variations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and aerosol activity during fog–haze episode: a case study from Shanghai
Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN)and aerosol chemical composition were performed simultaneously at an urbansite in Shanghai from 6 to 9 November 2010. The variations of CCN numberconcentration (NCCN) and aerosol activity (activated aerosol fraction,NCCN/NCN) were examined during a fog–haze co-occurring event. Anthropogenic pollutants emitted from vehicl...
Analysis of elevated springtime levels of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the high Alpine research sites Jungfraujoch and Zugspitze
The largest atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mole fractions at remotesurface sites in the Northern Hemisphere are commonly observed during themonths April and May. Different formation mechanisms for this seasonalmaximum have previously been suggested: hemispheric-scale production fromprecursors accumulated during the winter months, increased springtimetransport from up-wind continents or ...