Ecology

Longevity of simultaneous operation of aquaculture and mangrove forestry as explained in terms of water and sediment qualities
A silvofishery system (SFS) of 5.2 ha, simultaneously combining aquaculture (shrimp, crab, and fish) and forestry, was studied to understand how the water/sediment qualities had remained viable for 30 years. The long life of this SFS pond contrasts sharply with a short life of many conventional, intensively managed shrimp ponds (5 years on average). Total ammonia nitrogen in the SFS water (0...


Gelatinous zooplankton biomass in the global oceans: geographic variation and environmental drivers
Scientific debate regarding the future trends, and subsequent ecological, biogeochemical and societal impacts, of gelatinous zooplankton (GZ) in a changing ocean is hampered by lack of a global baseline and an understanding of the causes of biogeographic patterns. We address this by using a new global database of GZ records to test hypotheses relating to environmental drivers of biogeographic v...
Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites
The accurate mapping of forest carbon stocks is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle, for assessing emissions from deforestation, and for rational land-use planning. Remote sensing (RS) is currently the key tool for this purpose, but RS does not estimate vegetation biomass directly, and thus may miss significant spatial variations in forest structure. We test the stated accuracy ...


Does Organic Agriculture Benefit Anuran Diversity in Rice Fields?
The debate about management practices that help maintain biodiversity in cultivated areas is an ongoing controversy in conservation biology. It has been suggested that organic agriculture supports greater levels of diversity than non–organic agriculture. This study examined anuran assemblages in natural intermittent ponds and rice fields under two types of cultivation methods (conventional an...
Measuring habitat fragmentation: An evaluation of landscape pattern metrics
Landscape patterns influence a range of ecological processes at multiple spatial scales. Landscape pattern metrics are often used to study the patterns that result from the linear and nonlinear interactions between spatial aggregation and abundance of habitat. However, many class-level pattern metrics are highly correlated with habitat abundance, making their use as a measure of habitat fragmen...


BAMMtools: an R package for the analysis of evolutionary dynamics on phylogenetic trees
1. Understanding the dynamics of speciation, extinction, and phenotypic evolution is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Here, we present BAMMtools, an R package for the analysis and visualization of macroevolutionary dynamics on phylogenetic trees. BAMMtools is a companion package to BAMM, an open-source program for reversible jump MCMC analyses of diversification and trait evolution....
SDMtoolbox: a python-based GIS toolkit for landscape genetic, biogeography, and species distribution model analyses
1. Species distribution models (SDMs) are broadly used in ecological and evolutionary studies. Almost all SDM methods require extensive data preparation in a geographic information system (GIS) prior to model building. Often this step is cumbersome and if not properly done, can lead to poorly parameterized models or in some cases, if too difficult, prevents the realization of SDMs. Further, for...

Genetic Distance and Age Affect the Cuticular Chemical Profiles of the Clonal Ant Cerapachys biroi
Although cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have received much attention from biologists because of their important role in insect communication, few studies have addressed the chemical ecology of clonal species of eusocial insects. In this study we investigated whether and how differences in CHCs relate to the genetics and reproductive dynamics of the parthenogenetic ant Cerapachys biroi. We collec...
Modeling effects of conservation grassland losses on amphibian habitat
Amphibians provide many ecosystem services valued by society. However, populations have declined globally with most declines linked to habitat change. Wetlands and surrounding terrestrial grasslands form habitat for amphibians in the North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). Wetland drainage and grassland conversion have destroyed or degraded much amphibian habitat in the PPR. However, conse...

Fruit-feeding butterfly communities as indicators of forest restoration in an Afro-tropical rainforest
There is scarcity of information pertaining to insect colonisation during forest restoration in the tropics. We investigated the pattern and timescale of butterfly recovery along a gradient of forest restoration in an Afro-tropical moist forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. The restoration forests ranged from 3 to 16years of age. We placed five traps in each of the eight forests along the re...
Using a coupled behavior-economic model to reduce uncertainty and assess fishery management in a data-limited, small-scale fishery
This paper examines how fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK) and the analysis of their decision-making process can be used to help managers anticipate fisher behavior and thus be able to efficiently allocate scarce resources for monitoring and enforcement. To examine determinants of fisher behaviors, this study develops a coupled behavior-economic model examining how physical, market, and regula...

Greenhouse gas emissions and subjective well-being: An analysis of Swedish households
In the contemporary discussion on society's transformation towards long-term climate targets, it is often implicitly assumed that behavioral changes, unlike technological changes, would lead to reductions in human well-being. However, this assumption has been questioned by researchers, who instead argue that people may live better lives by consuming less and reduce their environmental impact in...
Integrating life-cycle assessment and choice analysis for alternative fuel valuation
This study monetizes the environmental damage and human health risk externalities associated with the life-cycle production and use of ethanol biofuels from corn-based and cellulosic feedstocks. An integrated economic-environmental assessment framework couples the measured emission impacts from the fuels with individuals' preferences regarding each fuel's externalities. This framework allows th...
Seeding phenology influences wood mouse seed choices: the overlooked role of timing in the foraging decisions by seed-dispersing rodents
Scatter-hoarding rodents influence the population dynamics of plants by acting as seed predators and dispersers. Therefore, rodent foraging preferences for certain seed traits (species, size, condition) have been extensively studied. However, to what extent these preferences are fixed or they track the temporal changes on seed characteristics due to phenological differences has been seldom expl...
The link between social network density and rank-order consistency of aggressiveness in juvenile eels
The emergence of an animal’s personality is the result of interactions between genetics, environment and experience. It is known that individuals are able to modulate their behaviour according to the context or the social environment. Many studies have shown for example, that familiarity among conspecifics diminishes aggressiveness, although little is known about the underlying processes. Nev...