Biotechnology

Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of water accessibility in cellulose of pretreated sugarcane bagasse
Enzymatic hydrolysis is a crucial step of biomass conversion into biofuels and different pretreatments have been proposed to improve the process efficiency. Amongst the various factors affecting hydrolysis yields of biomass samples, porosity and water accessibility stand out due to their intimate relation with enzymes accessibility to the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the biomass. In...


Scanning electron microscopical observation of an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture on micropatterned orthopaedic ceramics
In biomaterial engineering, the surface of an implant can influence cell differentiation, adhesion and affinity towards the implant. On contact with an implant, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal cells demonstrate differentiation towards bone forming osteoblasts, which can improve osteointegration. The process of micropatterning has been shown to improve osteointegration in polymers,...
Quantitative assessment of barriers to the clinical development and adoption of cellular therapies: A pilot study
There has been a large increase in basic science activity in cell therapy and a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials. However, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use does not match this magnitude of activity. We hypothesize that the paucity of engagement with the clinical community is a key contributor to the lack of commercially successful cell therapy produc...


Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the Gatekeepers’ perspective
The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the ...
From organic pollutants to bioplastics: insights into the bioremediation of aromatic compounds by Cupriavidus necator
Organic pollution by aromatic compounds is of increasing concern to our environment. Therefore, the transformation of aromatic pollutants into valuable aliphatic and biodegradable bioplastics was studied. Since benzoic acid was found to be the key compound for such bioremediation processes, its transformation, and metabolic pathways of digestion, by Cupriavidus necator were specifically analyse...


Fungal volatiles: an environmentally friendly tool to control pathogenic microorganisms in plants
Fungi are an extraordinary and immensely diverse group of microorganisms that colonize many habitats even competing with other microorganisms. Fungi have received recognition for interesting metabolic activities that have an enormous variety of biotechnological applications. Previously, volatile organic compounds produced by fungi (FVOCs) have been demonstrated to have a great capacity for use ...
Stepwise enhancement of catalytic performance of haloalkane dehalogenase LinB towards ß-hexachlorocyclohexane
Two haloalkane dehalogenases, LinBUT and LinBMI, each with 296 amino acid residues, exhibit only seven amino acid residue differences between them, but LinBMI’s catalytic performance towards β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is considerably higher than LinBUT’s. To elucidate the molecular basis governing this difference, intermediate mutants between LinBUT and LinBMI were constructed and ki...

Biomimetic nanoparticles for siRNA delivery in the treatment of leukaemia
Leukaemia is a bone marrow cancer occurring in acute and chronic subtypes. Acute leukaemia is a rapidly fatal cancer potentially causing death within a few weeks, if untreated. Leukaemia arises as a result of disruption to haematopoietic precursors, caused either by acquired gene fusions, gene mutations or inappropriate expression of the relevant oncogenes. Current treatment options have made s...
Construction and application of recombinant strain for the production of an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis
The alkaline protease gene, Apr, from Bacillus licheniformis 2709 was cloned into an expression vector pET – 28b (+), to yield the recombinant plasmid pET-28b (+) – Apr. The pET-28b (+) – Apr was expressed in a high expression strain E. coli BL2The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence analysis revealed a 98% identity to that of Bacillus licheniformis 2709. Sodium salt-Polyacr...

Prospective isolation of human bone marrow stromal cell subsets: A comparative study between Stro-1-, CD146- and CD105-enriched populations
Stro-1 has proved an efficacious marker for enrichment of skeletal stem and progenitor cells although isolated populations remain heterogeneous, exhibiting variable colony-forming efficiency and osteogenic differentiation potential. The emerging findings that skeletal stem cells originate from adventitial reticular cells have brought two further markers to the fore including CD146 and CD105 (bo...
Electrospun silk fibroin fiber diameter influences in vitro dermal fibroblast behavior and promotes healing of ex vivo wound models
Replicating the nanostructured components of extracellular matrix is a target for dermal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) allows the production of nano- to microscale fibrous scaffolds. For BMSF electrospun scaffolds to be successful, understanding and optimizing the cellular response to material morphology is essential. Primary human...

A review on the use of cell therapy in the treatment of tendon disease and injuries
Tendon disease and injuries carry significant morbidity worldwide in both athletic and non-athletic populations. It is estimated that tendon injuries account for 30%–50% of all musculoskeletal injuries globally. Current treatments have been inadequate in providing an accelerated process of repair resulting in high relapse rates. Modern concepts in tissue engineering and regenerative medic...
Biorefining policy needs to come of age
After significant delays, the first commercial cellulosic biorefinery is open in Europe and three more are due this year in the USA, with others soon to follow. Although biofuels might be the mainstay, there has been a significant shift in emphasis towards bio-based chemicals. A major bio-based public–private partnership has launched in Europe, but obstacles to biorefining remain, and public ...
Biological control agents: from field to market, problems, and challenges
Global food security is vulnerable due to massive growth of the human population, changes in global climate, the emergence of novel/more virulent pathogens, and demands from increasingly discerning consumers for chemical-free, sustainably produced food products. Bacterium-based biological control agents (BCAs), if used as part of an integrated management system, may satisfy the above demands. W...
Retinoic acid regulates Lhx8 expression via FGF-8b to the upper jaw development of chick embryo
Expression of the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx8 is restricted to and up-regulated in the mesenchyme of the upper face prominence before lip fusion. Msx1/2 acts in early development to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Deficiency of these genes is associated with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate. Since retinoid is a potential patterning influence on the...