Biotechnology

Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment–severity equation
Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the ...


Feasibility of raw glycerol conversion into Single Cell Oil by Zygomycetes under non-aseptic conditions
The use of plant oils as feedstock for the biodiesel manufacture has many drawbacks, thus, the interest has turned to single cell oil (SCO) as an alternative. However, the production of SCO is still too expensive, mainly due to the low oil productivity and the high cost of medium sterilization required. In this work raw glycerol was converted into SCO by oleaginous Zygomycetes under non-aseptic...
Shear stress upregulates IL-1β secretion by Chlamydia pneumoniae- infected monocytes
Infectious agents are increasingly implicated in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that the common intracellular respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the well-established risk factors of atherosclerosis but the exact mechanism is not well understood. It is believed that C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes travel...


Optimization of a multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate for the production in Pichia pastoris by the identification and removal of protease cleavage sites
We demonstrated the successful optimization of a recombinant multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate protein for production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by the identification and subsequent removal of two protease cleavage sites. After observing protein degradation in the culture supernatant of a fed-batch fermentation, the predominant proteolytic fragment of the secreted recombi...
Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites
Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during o...


Long-term Three-dimensional Perfusion Culture of Human Adult Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Bioreactors
The construction and long-term maintenance of three-dimensional in vitro bone marrow models is of great interest but still quite challenging. Here we describe the use of a multi-compartment hollow-fiber membrane based three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor for long-term culture of whole human bone marrow mononuclear cells. We also investigated bioreactors with incorporated open-porous foamed hy...
Zebrafish fgf10b has a Complementary Function to fgf10a in Liver and Pancreas Development
Fgf10 is a critical growth factor in mammals for development of endodermal organs such as the liver, pancreas, lung, and gut. Due to whole genome duplication, the zebrafish has two fgf10 orthologs, fgf10a and fgf10b. While fgf10a has a role in development of the esophagus and swimbladder, we found in the present study that fgf10b had a complementary expression pattern in the liver, pancreas, an...

Engineering geminivirus resistance in Jatropha curcus
Jatropha curcus is a good candidate plant for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical regions. However, J. curcus is susceptible to the geminivirus Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV), and frequent viral disease outbreaks severely limit productivity. Therefore the development of J. curcus to carry on durable virus resistance remains crucial and poses a major biotechnological challenge. ...
The exometabolome of Clostridium thermocellum reveals overflow metabolism at high cellulose loading
Clostridium thermocellum is a model thermophilic organism for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic substrates. The majority of publications studying the physiology of this organism use substrate concentrations of ?10 g/L. However, industrially relevant concentrations of substrate start at 100 g/L carbohydrate, which corresponds to approximately 150 g/L solids. To gain insight into th...

Metabolic engineering of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production
Butanol is a promising next generation fuel and a bulk chemical precursor. Although clostridia are the primary industrial microbes for the fermentative production of 1-butanol, alternative engineered hosts have the potential to generate 1-butanol from alternative carbon feedstocks via synthetic metabolic pathways. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic ?-proteobacterium, ...
Domestication of the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana : reduction of antenna size improves light-use efficiency in a photobioreactor
The utilization of biomass from microalgae for biofuel production is one of the key elements for the development of a sustainable and secure energy supply. Among the different microalgae, Chlorella species are of interest because of their high productivity, high lipid content, and resistance to the high light conditions typical of photobioreactors. However, the economic feasibility of growing a...

Structure-based functional annotation of hypothetical proteins from Candida dubliniensis: a quest for potential drug targets
Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogenic yeast in humans and infections are usually restricted to mucosal parts of the body. However, its presence in specimens of immunocompromised individuals, especially in HIV-positive patients, is of major medical concern. There is a large fraction of genomes of C. dubliniensis in the database which are uncharacterized for their biochemical, biophysica...
Genome-wide transcriptomic comparison of cotton ( Gossypium herbaceum ) leaf and root under drought stress
In this study, the 454 pyrosequencing platform was used for analyzing the comparative transcriptomic profiles of leaf and root tissues of 1-month-old cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) plants under drought stress. A total of 56,354 and 49,308 reads were generated from leaf and root tissues, respectively, and clustered into 6,313 and 5,858 unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes that showed up...
Isolation and in silico characterization of novel esterase gene with β-lactamase fold isolated from metagenome of north western Himalayas
An esterase-producing clone Aph2 was isolated from the Apharwat soil metagenomic library, a mountain peak in NW Himalayas. ORF 2 (Est Ac) of clone Aph2 corresponds to 271 aa protein and showed 26 % sequence similarity to carboxylesterase gene of Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B. Est Ac contains nucleophilic Ser in S68-X-X-K71 motif of β-lactamases with Tyr Y103. The conserved sequences are common wi...
Characterization of Klebsiella granulomatis pathogenic to silkworm, Bombyx mori L
Bacterial disease of silkworm causes significant reduction of silk production leading to huge economic loss. This study aims to isolate bacteria from diseased silkworm and to determine its pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. A strain of Klebsiella granulomatis has been isolated from silkworm haemolymph which was later identified on the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencin...