Anatomy

Bone Modeling Patterns and Morphometric Craniofacial Variation in Individuals From Two Prehistoric Human Populations From Argentina
Native human populations from South America display high levels of craniofacial variation encompassing gracile and robust skulls. Nevertheless, the processes of bone modeling by which morphological variation among populations were attained, remain poorly understood. Here we analyze the relationship between patterns of bone formation and resorption and morphometric variation in the upper face of...


Conformational switch of insulin-binding aptamer into G-quadruplex induced by K+ and Na+: an experimental and theoretical approach
Guanine-rich sequences can form the G-quadruplex structure in the presence of specific metal ions. Here, circular dichroism, UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, and molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed that insulin-binding aptamer (IBA) could form an intramolecular G-quadruplex structure after binding K+. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra demonstrated that IBA could fold into a parallel ...
Molecular simulation of N-acetylneuraminic acid analogs and molecular dynamics studies of cholera toxin-Neu5Gc complex
Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB5 protein complex secreted by the pathogen Vibrio cholera, which is responsible for cholera infection. N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) is a derivative of neuraminic acid with nine-carbon backbone. NeuNAc is distributed on the cell surface mainly located in the terminal components of glycoconjugates, and also plays an important role in cell–cell interaction. In our ...


Quantifying ligand–receptor interactions for gorge-spanning acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
There is a need for continued development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that could prolong the life of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and also prevent the aggregation of amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The lack of a 3D-QSAR model which specifically deconvulates the type of interactions and quantifies them in terms of energies has motivated us to report a...
Origin of the anterior cruciate ligament and the surrounding osseous landmarks of the femur
The aims of this study were to evaluate the discernibility of the LIR (lateral intercondylar ridge) and the LBR (lateral bifurcate ridge) and show their reliability in femoral tunnel placement in ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction. Additionally, their position to the femoral axis, their course, and the ACL footprint were analyzed. For this study, 235 human femora were evaluated. Of...


Anatomical eponyms, Part 2: The other side of the coin
Over a century after they were removed, at least officially, from anatomical terminology, eponyms remain an obviously controversial topic. In the first part of this paper we acted as their defense counsel, aiming to demonstrate that the 1895 first edition of the Nomina Anatomica and subsequently the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) probably put the cart before the horse. Ho...
The Chiari malformations: A review with emphasis on anatomical traits
Hindbrain herniations come in many forms and have been further subdivided as their original descriptions. For cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, they can be divided into two categories, acquired and congenital. Acquired hindbrain herniations are due to increased intracranial pressure caused by certain conditions such as trauma or brain tumor. Although the mechanism for their formation is not clear, ...

Anatomical significance in aortoiliac occlusive disease
Aortoiliac occlusive disease is a subset of peripheral arterial disease involving an atheromatous occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, common iliac arteries, or both. The disease, as it is known today, was described by the French surgeon René Leriche as a thrombotic occlusion of the end of the aorta. Leriche successfully linked the anatomic location of the occlusion with a unique triad of sympto...
Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects
The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participa...

Therapeutic Effect of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Cluster in Rat Hind-Limb Ischemia
We investigated whether transplantation of three-dimensional cell masses (3DCM) of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) cultured on a basic fibroblast growth factor-immobilized substrate improved hind limb functional recovery by stimulating angiogenesis in an immune-competent rat ischemic limb model. In vitro experiments confirmed that cells within 3DCMs differentiate toward the endothel...
Morphometric Study of Phylogenetic and Ecologic Signals in Procyonid (Mammalia: Carnivora) Endocasts
Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the e...

3D geometry analysis of the medial meniscus – a statistical shape modeling approach
The geometry-dependent functioning of the meniscus indicates that detailed knowledge on 3D meniscus geometry and its inter-subject variation is essential to design well functioning anatomically shaped meniscus replacements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify 3D meniscus geometry and to determine whether variation in medial meniscus geometry is size- or shape-driven. Also we perfor...
Complex disruption effect of natural polyphenols on Bcl-2-Bax: molecular dynamics simulation and essential dynamics study
Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a process by which cells died after completing physiological function or after a severe genetic damage. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Anti apoptotic protein Bcl-2 prevents the Bax activation/oligomerization to form heterodimer which is responsible for release of the cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol in response to...
Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs
The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which ‘cursorial specialization’ affects ...
Etienne-Arthur Louis Fallot and his tetralogy
Étienne-Arthur Louis Fallot (1850–1911) is one of the most significant medical figures of the 19th century with an eponymous congenital cardiac malformation. His initial account of the four anatomical features making up his tetralogy proved remarkably significant in the progression of clinical descriptions of the lesions producing cyanotic congenital cardiac disease. Although subsequently th...