Anatomy

Developmental covariation of human vault and base throughout postnatal ontogeny
In the present study, we analyzed postnatal ontogenetic integration among morphological traits of the human neurocranium. Particularly, the covariation between the vault and the base during postnatal life was assessed. Since the association between these regions may depend on the generalized change produced by allometry, we tested its effect on their covariation. On a sample of adults and subad...


Are vibrissae viable sensory structures for prey capture in northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris?
Little is known about the tactics northern elephant seals (NES) use to capture prey due to the difficulties in observing these animals underwater. NES forage on vertically migrating prey at depths >500 m during day and at night where light levels are negligible. Although NES have increased visual sensitivity in deep water, vision is likely a limited sensory modality. Still images of NES foragin...
The number of cardiac myocytes in the hypertrophic and hypotrophic left ventricle of the obese and calorie-restricted mouse heart
Changes in body mass due to varying amounts of calorie intake occur frequently with obesity and anorexia/cachexia being at opposite sides of the scale. Here, we tested whether a high-fat diet or calorie restriction (CR) decreases the number of cardiac myocytes and affects their volume. Ten 6–8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or high-fat diet (obesit...


Anatomical and Morphometric Variations in the Arterial System of the Domestic Cat
We document the anatomical architecture and frequency of occurrence of variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery and the origin of the internal iliac arteries in the domestic cat, a widely used model organism in both anatomical training and research. Based on the study of 56 preserved specimens, we observed three distinct arrangements in the branching pattern of the brac...
The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle architecture in untrained young vs. old women
It is unknown whether loading of the lower limbs through additional storage of fat mass as evident in obesity would promote muscular adaptations similar to those seen with resistance exercise. It is also unclear whether ageing modulates any such adjustments. This study aimed to examine the relationships between adiposity, ageing and skeletal muscle size and architecture. A total of 100 untraine...


The Molecular Biology of Vertebrate Olfaction
The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, res...
The Shrinking Anthropoid Nose, the Human Vomeronasal Organ, and the Language of Anatomical Reduction
Humans and most of our closest extant relatives, the anthropoids, are notable for their reduced “snout.” The striking reduction in facial projection is only a superficial similarity. All anthropoids, including those with long faces (e.g., baboons), have lost numerous internal projections (turbinals) and spaces (recesses). In sum, this equates to the loss of certain regions of olfactory muco...

Computational Fluid Dynamics as Surgical Planning Tool: A Pilot Study on Middle Turbinate Resection
Controversies exist regarding the resection or preservation of the middle turbinate (MT) during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Any MT resection will perturb nasal airflow and may affect the mucociliary dynamics of the osteomeatal complex. Neither rhinometry nor computed tomography (CT) can adequately quantify nasal airflow pattern changes following surgery. This study explores the feasibi...
Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Implications Regarding Respiratory and Olfactory Airflow
Compared with other mammals (e.g., primates, rodents, and carnivores), the form and function of the ungulate nasal fossa, in particular the ethmoidal region, has been largely unexplored. Hence, the nasal anatomy of the largest prey species remains far less understood than that of their predators, rendering comparisons and evolutionary context unclear. Of the previous studies of nasal anatomy, n...

Mapping the Nasal Airways: Using Histology to Enhance CT-Based Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Nycticebus
Three-dimensional reconstructions of imaging data are an increasingly common approach for studying anatomical structure. However, certain aspects of anatomy, including microscopic structure and differentiating tissue types, continue to benefit from traditional histological analyses. We present here a detailed methodology for combining data from microCT and histological imaging to create 3D virt...
Nasal Morphometry in Marmosets: Loss and Redistribution of Olfactory Surface Area
The two major groups of primates differ in internal nasal anatomy. Strepsirrhines (e.g., lemurs) have more numerous turbinals and recesses compared with haplorhines (e.g., monkeys). Since detailed quantitative comparisons of nasal surface area (SA) have not been made, we measured mucosa in serially sectioned monkeys (Callithrix jacchus, Cebuella pygmaea). Data were compared with previously publ...

Quantifying the Cribriform Plate: Influences of Allometry, Function, and Phylogeny in Carnivora
The small, perforated bony cup of the anterior cranial fossa called the cribriform plate (CP) is perhaps the best-preserved remnant of olfactory anatomy in fossil mammal skulls. The CP and its myriad foramina record the passage of peripheral olfactory nerves from nasal cavity to olfactory bulb. Previous work has suggested that CP surface area reflects aspects of olfactory capacity (as inferred ...
Respiratory and Olfactory Turbinals in Feliform and Caniform Carnivorans: The Influence of Snout Length
To enhance bite force at the canines, feliform carnivorans have short rostra relative to caniform carnivorans. Rostral reduction in feliforms results in less rostrocaudal space for the maxilloturbinals, the complex set of bones involved in conditioning inspired air and conserving water. It is unknown whether the maxilloturbinals might show adaptations to adjust for this loss, such as greater co...
Beyond the Sniffer: Frontal Sinuses in Carnivora
Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration...
Comparative Anatomy and Systematic Implications of the Turbinal Skeleton in Lagomorpha (Mammalia)
In order to elucidate the systematic relevance of the turbinal skeleton in Lagomorpha the ethmoidal regions of 6 ochotonid, 21 leporid, and 2 outgroup species (Sciurus vulgaris, Tupaia sp.) species were investigated by high-resolution computed tomography (μCT). Number and shape of turbinals correspond to major clades and to several genera. All Lagomorpha under study have a deeply excavated nas...