Anatomy

An investigation into the architecture of the vastus medialis oblique muscle in athletic and sedentary individuals: An in vivo ultrasound study
There is thought to be a relationship between the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), a condition that has a high prevalence in young athletic individuals. Following a suggestion that there may be a link between the architecture of the VMO and an individual's activity level, the aim of this study was to determine any differences in two measurable parame...


Occipital neuralgia: Anatomic considerations
Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of gold nanoparticles in vitro
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have potential biomedical and scientific applications. In this study, we evaluated the uptake and internalization of FBS-coated 20 nm AuNPs into lung fibroblasts and liver cells by different microscopy techniques. AuNP aggregates were observed inside MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells under light microscopy, especially after enhancement with automegallography...


The use of a biostatic fascia lata thigh allograft as a scaffold for autologous human culture of fibroblasts–an in vitro study
The method for covering gingival recession defects and augmenting keratinized gingiva involves the use of autogenuous connective tissue grafts obtained from palatal mucosa in combination with various techniques of flap repositioning or tunnel techniques. In the case of multiple gingival recession defects the amount of connective tissue available for grafting is insufficient. Therefore, the use ...
Impact of radiation history, gender and age on bone quality in sites for orthodontic skeletal anchorage device placement
Stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants is prerequisite to their success and durability in orthodontic treatment. As investigations revealed a positive correlation of miniscrew stability to periimplant bone quality, it has been the aim of this study to analyze the bone structure of resection preparations of human mandibles histologically by investigating the samples according to age, gender...


Brain-Derived Neurotrofic Factor and its Receptor TrkB are Present, but Segregated, within Mature Cutaneous Pacinian Corpuscles of Macaca Fascicularis
Some mechanoreceptors in mammals depend totally or in part on the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and their receptor TrkB, for development and maintenance. These actions are presumably exerced regulating the survival of discrete sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia which form mechanoreceptors at the periphery. In addition, the cells formin...
A proposed novel function of the psoas minor revealed through cadaver dissection
There is sparse information about the anatomy and function of the psoas minor, specifically the extent and frequency to which the muscle attaches into the iliac fascia that drapes over the iliopsoas. This information may help clarify the function of the psoas minor, especially regarding the possibility of controlling the position and mechanical stability of the underlying iliopsoas. This descri...

In vivo measurement of fascicle length and pennation of the human anconeus muscle at several elbow joint angles
Ultrasound imaging has facilitated the reliable measure of the architectural variables fascicle length (LF) and pennation angle (PA), at rest and during static and dynamic contractions in many human skeletal muscles in vivo. Despite its small size and very modest contribution to elbow extension torque, the anconeus muscle has proven a useful model for the study of neuromuscular function in heal...
Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model
The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model ...

The effect of selected “desirable difficulties” on the ability to recall anatomy information
“Desirable difficulties” is a theory from cognitive science used to promote learning in a variety of contexts. The basic premise is that creating a cognitively challenging environment at the learning acquisition phase, by actively engaging learners in the retrieval of to-be-learned materials, promotes long-term retention. In this study, the degree of desirable difficulties was varied to ide...
Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) – Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy
The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, we...

The surgical anatomy of the lymphatic system of the pancreas
The lymphatic system of the pancreas is a complex, intricate network of lymphatic vessels and nodes responsible for the drainage of the head, neck, body, and tail of the pancreas. Its anatomical divisions and embryological development have been well described in the literature with emphasis on its clinical relevance in regards to pancreatic pathologies. A thorough knowledge and understanding of...
Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar wall destruction in the early stage of pulmonary emphysema
The morphological mechanism of alveolar wall destruction during pulmonary emphysema has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate this process three-dimensionally. Lung specimens from five patients with pulmonary emphysema were used, and five controls with normal alveolar structure were also examined. Sections 150 μm thick were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, elastica, and...
Spiral rectal valves: Anatomy, eponyms, and clinical significance
Rectal wall valves are obscure anatomic parts that rarely are considered in current medical practice. Yet from the seminal analysis of them in the early nineteenth century by the Irish anatomist and surgeon, John Houston, their structure, purpose, and clinical significance were topics of surprising disagreement. Were they true structures? What function might they have? Did disease originate in ...
Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: Implications for modelling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine
The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioural postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n=10) in the absence and pres...