Anatomy

Outcomes of a rotational dissection system in gross anatomy
At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to attend ICM or study independently. For the next lab...


Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758) and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758)
The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were m...
3D interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anesthetic interest
A 3d model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected...


Mobile technology: Creation and use of an iBook to teach the anatomy of the brachial plexus
In an era of digitally connected students, there is a demand for academic material to be delivered through electronic mobile devices and not just through traditional methods such as lectures and tutorials. A digital interactive book—iBook (for use on the Apple iPad)—was created to teach undergraduate anatomical science students (n = 26) four key areas of the brachial plexus: definitions...
Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 ...


Ontogenetic Scaling of the Hindlimb Muscles of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana)
The greater rhea (Rhea americana) is the largest South American bird. It is a cursorial, flightless species with long powerful legs and reduced forelimbs. The goal of this study was to explore how hindlimb muscles scale with body mass during postnatal growth and to analyze whether the specialized locomotion of this species affects the growth of muscle masses. The mass of 19 muscles and body mas...
Retinal anatomy of the New Zealand kiwi: Structural traits consistent with their nocturnal behavior
Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) have a visual system unlike that of other nocturnal birds, and have specializations to their auditory, olfactory and tactile systems. Eye size, binocular visual fields and visual brain centers in kiwi are proportionally the smallest yet recorded among birds. Given the many unique features of the kiwi visual system, we examined the laminar organization of the kiwi retina to d...

Post-coital genital injury in healthy women: A review
Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women, a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requi...
Development of the lateral plate mesoderm in medaka Oryzias latipes and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: insight into the diversification of pelvic fin position
The position of the pelvic fins among teleost fishes has tended to shift rostrally during evolution. This positional shift seems to have led to the diversification of feeding behavior and allowed adaptation to new environments. To understand the developmental basis of this shift in pelvic fin position among teleosts, we investigated the embryonic development of the lateral plate mesoderm, which...

Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections
To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of 8 embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cell...
Occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone of the human mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition: A three-dimensional finite element study
Understanding of the occlusal load distribution through the mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition is essential because alterations in magnitude and/or direction of occlusal forces may cause remarkable changes in cortical and trabecular bone structure. Previous analyses by strain gauge technique, photoelastic and, more recently, finite element (FE) methods provided no direct evidence for occl...

Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa
Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however other factors – e.g., allometry, evolutionary development – must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa...
Morphometry, geometry, function, and the future
The proliferation of geometric morphometrics in biological anthropology and more broadly throughout the biological sciences has resulted in a multitude of studies that adopt landmark-based approaches for addressing a variety of questions in evolutionary morphology. In some cases, particularly in the realm of systematics, the fit between research question and analytical design is quite good. Fun...
Functional geometric morphometric analysis of masticatory system ontogeny in papionin primates
The three-dimensional configuration of the primate masticatory system is constrained by the need to maximize bite forces while avoiding distraction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Within these bounds, shape variation has predictable effects on functional capacities such as mechanical advantage and gape. In this study, geometric morphometric analysis is used to investigate the ontogeny of ...
Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics
An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earli...