Anatomy

3D Geometry and Quantitative Variation of the Cervico-Thoracic Region in Crocodylia
This study aims to interpret the axial patterning of the crocodylian neck, and to find a potential taxonomic signal that corresponds to vertebral position. Morphological variation in the cervico-thoracic vertebrae is compared in fifteen different crocodylian species using 3D geometric morphometric methods. Multivariate analysis indicated that the pattern of intracolumnar variation was a gradual...


Enigmatic Cranial Superstructures Among Chamorro Ancestors From The Mariana Islands: Gross Anatomy and Microanatomy
This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT,...
Heinrich obersteiner and his contributions
Heinrich Obersteiner (1847–1921) was amongst the most influential neuroscientists in the 19th century. Born into a family of physicians, he gained early exposure to medicine, and as a medical student, he focused much of his research in neuroanatomy, eventually becoming a professor of neuroanatomy at the University of Vienna. Throughout his academic career, he focused greatly on neuropathology...


Physician-anatomists of Italy in Şānīzāde Mehmed Atāullah Efendi's work Mir'āt al-Abdān (mirror of bodies)
Şānīzāde Mehmed Atāullah Efendi was a pioneer in the history of Turkish medical education with his work Ḫamse-i Şānīzāde (Five Works of Şānīzāde). The first of these works, Mir'āt al-abdān fī taşrīh-i a‘ḍāi’l-insān (Mirror of the Bodies in the Dissection of the Members of the Human Body), concerns anatomy and was written in 1816. Şānīzāde's Mir'āt al-abdān is a...
Anatomical observations of the human acromioclavicular joint
The condition of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is considered to be one factor in the etiology of shoulder impingement syndrome, but there are few supporting morphological data. Fifty-two sides of 35 cadavers were investigated macroscopically and histologically using Safranin O, Fast green, and Weigert's iron hematoxylin staining. The ACJs were classified into three major types depending on ...


Why do some intervertebral discs degenerate, when others (in the same spine) do not?
This review suggests why some discs degenerate rather than age normally. Intervertebral discs are avascular pads of fibrocartilage that allow movement between vertebral bodies. Human discs have a low cell density and a limited ability to adapt to mechanical demands. With increasing age, the matrix becomes yellowed, fibrous, and brittle, but if disc structure remains intact, there is little impa...
Using and respecting the dead human body: An anatomist's perspective
In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing c...

Human prion diseases and the risk of their transmission during anatomical dissection
Prion diseases (or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are a unique group of fatal progressive neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The infectious agent is hypothesized to consist solely of a highly protease-resistant misfolded isoform of the host prion protein. Prions display a remarkable degree of resistance to chemical and physical decontamination. Many common for...
An approach toward the development of core syllabuses for the anatomical sciences
There is increasingly a call for clinical relevance in the teaching of the biomedical sciences within all health care programs. This presupposes that there is an understanding of what is “core” material within the curriculum. To date, the anatomical sciences have been poorly served by the development of core syllabuses, although there have been commendable attempts to define a core syllabus...

Exploratory genotype–phenotype correlations of facial form and asymmetry in unaffected relatives of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate
Family relatives of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) who presumably carry a genetic risk yet do not manifest overt oral clefts, often present with distinct facial morphology of unknown genetic etiology. This study investigates distinct facial morphology among unaffected relatives and examines whether candidate genes previously associated with overt NSCL...
Male Gonadal Differentiation and the Paedomorphic Evolution of the Testis in Teleostei
Testis differentiation from representatives of the Otophysi (Cyprinus carpio), Percomorpha (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), and Atherinomorpha (Poecilia reticulata) was comparatively described. In the undifferentiated gonad of C. carpio, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are scattered throughout the gonads while in A. nigrofasciata and P. reticulata the PGCs are restricted to the ventral periphery. ...

Variation in Timing, Duration, Intensity, and Direction of Adolescent Growth in the Mandible, Maxilla, and Cranial Base: The Fels Longitudinal Study
There is considerable individual variation in the timing, duration, and intensity of growth that occurs in the craniofacial complex during childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this article is to describe the extent of this variation between traits and between individuals within the Fels Longitudinal Study (FLS). Polynomial multilevel models were used to estimate the ages of onset, peak vel...
The Evaluation of Vertebrobasilar Artery System in Neuro-Behçet and Behçet Disease using Magnetic Resonance Angiography
The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertebrobasilar artery system in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. For this aim; 20 adults with clinically diagnosed Behcet's disease, 20 adults with Neuro-Behçet's disease, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). During MRA, diameters of left vertebral artery (LVA), right v...
Ultrastructural Features of Vagina at Different Phases of the Oestrous Cycle in the Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse)
The ultrastructures of the vagina at various stages of the oestrous cycle in female African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse) were described in the present study. At mid-proestrus, late proestrus (LP)/early estrus (EE) and mid-estrus (ME) as well as late metestrus (LM)/early diestrus (ED) and mid-diestrus (MD), complex interface of epithelium and lamina propria were observed. Cells o...
A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins
The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, su...