Anatomy

Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles
The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used – the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To el...


Adenosine A2B and A3 receptor location at the mouse neuromuscular junction
To date, four subtypes of adenosine receptors have been cloned (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R). In a previous study we used confocal immunocytochemistry to identify A1R and A2AR receptors at mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The data shows that these receptors are localized differently in the three cells (muscle, nerve and glia) that configure the NMJs. A1R localizes in the terminal teloglial Sc...
Age-related dermal collagen changes during development, maturation and ageing – a morphometric and comparative study
The tissue organisation of dermal collagen is gaining importance as a contributing factor both in development and ageing, as well as in skin maturation processes. In this work we aim to study different representative parameters of this structural organisation in 45 human skin samples of assorted ages, by means of image analysis. The variation of these parameters on the basis of age was assessed...


Modeling studies on the structural determinants for the DAG/phorbol ester binding to C1 domain
C1 domains are small zinc-binding structural units of approximately 50 amino acids, originally discovered as lipid-binding modules in protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. C1 domains that bind and respond to the DAG/phorbol ester are termed as typical, and those that do not respond to DAG/phorbol ester are termed as atypical. To design molecules targeting a specific C1 domain for regulating a specif...
Binding site identification of metformin to human serum albumin and glycated human serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques: a comparison study
The interaction between metformin and human serum albumin (HSA), as well as its glycated form (gHSA) was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques, zeta potential, and molecular modeling under physiological conditions. The steady state and time-resolved fluorescence data displayed the quenching mechanism of HSA–metformin and gHSA–metformin was static. The binding information, includ...


Ultrafast molecular dynamics of biofuel extraction for microalgae and bacteria milking: blocking membrane folding pathways to damaged lipid-bilayer conformations with nanomicelles
Cell milking is a 100% renewable green energy for CO2 by extraction of biofuels inside the cytosol of photosynthetic micro-organisms as microalgae and bacteria. The cells are exposed to a hydrophobic solvent forming holes and cracks through their membranes from which the biofuels can leak out. In protein folding, the goal would be to find pathways to the unique functional protein conformer. How...
The debate over eponyms
Traditionally, important clinical or anatomic discoveries were labeled with the discoverer's name, to serve as both a means to recognize and reward the discoverer's contribution to the field but also because scientific names were often harder to remember and more difficult to communicate. Eponyms have been pervasive throughout anatomy and medicine over the last few centuries. Recently, some exp...

Student perceptions and effectiveness of an innovative learning tool: Anatomy Glove Learning System
A trend in anatomical education is the development of alternative pedagogical approaches to replace or complement experiences in a cadaver laboratory; however, empirical evidence on their effectiveness is often not reported. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Anatomy Glove Learning System (AGLS), which enables students to learn the relationship between hand structure and function...
Recognition rules for binding of Zn-Cys2His2 transcription factors to operator DNA
The molecules of Zn-finger transcription factors consist of several similar small protein units. We analyzed the crystal structures 46 basic units of 22 complexes of Zn-Cys2His2 family with the fragments of operator DNA. We showed that the recognition of DNA occurs via five protein contacts. The canonical binding positions of the recognizing α-helix were −1, 3, 6, and 7, which make contacts ...

Mobility and temperature resistance of trehalose mycolates as key characteristics of the outer membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Trehalose mycolates are fundamental characteristics of the outer membrane (mycomembrane) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and they are supposed to play a key role in the low permeability and high resistance of mycobacteria to many antibiotics; however, still, the molecular characteristics making mycolates so effective in their biological function are not fully understood. This work aims to investi...
The physicochemical essence of the purine·pyrimidine transition mismatches with Watson-Crick geometry in DNA: A·C* versa A*·C. A QM and QTAIM atomistic understanding
It was established for the first time by DFT and MP2 quantum-mechanical (QM) methods either in vacuum, so in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ε = 4), typical for hydrophobic interfaces of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions, that the repertoire for the tautomerisation of the biologically important adenine·cytosine(A·C*) mismatched DNA base pair, formed by the amino taut...

3D Geometry and Quantitative Variation of the Cervico-Thoracic Region in Crocodylia
This study aims to interpret the axial patterning of the crocodylian neck, and to find a potential taxonomic signal that corresponds to vertebral position. Morphological variation in the cervico-thoracic vertebrae is compared in fifteen different crocodylian species using 3D geometric morphometric methods. Multivariate analysis indicated that the pattern of intracolumnar variation was a gradual...
Enigmatic Cranial Superstructures Among Chamorro Ancestors From The Mariana Islands: Gross Anatomy and Microanatomy
This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT,...
Heinrich obersteiner and his contributions
Heinrich Obersteiner (1847–1921) was amongst the most influential neuroscientists in the 19th century. Born into a family of physicians, he gained early exposure to medicine, and as a medical student, he focused much of his research in neuroanatomy, eventually becoming a professor of neuroanatomy at the University of Vienna. Throughout his academic career, he focused greatly on neuropathology...
Physician-anatomists of Italy in Şānīzāde Mehmed Atāullah Efendi's work Mir'āt al-Abdān (mirror of bodies)
Şānīzāde Mehmed Atāullah Efendi was a pioneer in the history of Turkish medical education with his work Ḫamse-i Şānīzāde (Five Works of Şānīzāde). The first of these works, Mir'āt al-abdān fī taşrīh-i a‘ḍāi’l-insān (Mirror of the Bodies in the Dissection of the Members of the Human Body), concerns anatomy and was written in 1816. Şānīzāde's Mir'āt al-abdān is a...