Environment

New proposal for production of bioactive compounds by supercritical technology integrated to a sugarcane biorefinery
The construction of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) plant inside or in close proximity to a sugarcane biorefinery producing first and second generation ethanol demonstrated to be very promising, increasing the economic potential of the SFE process in up to 57 %, since the SFE plant could use directly the ethanol, CO2, heat, and electricity already available, with lower prices. In this s...


Rapid plant species loss at high rates and at low frequency of N addition in temperate steppe
Humans are both intentionally (fertilization) and unintentionally (atmospheric nutrient deposition) adding nutrients worldwide. Increasing availability of biologically reactive nitrogen (N) is one of the major drivers of plant species loss. It remains unclear, however, whether plant diversity will be equally reduced by inputs of reactive N coming from either small and frequent N deposition even...
Ebullitive Methane Emissions from Oxygenated Wetland Streams
Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on em...


Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range – driven by improved winter conditions?
High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs a...
Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift and the hybridization of a coastal fish species
Despite increasing awareness of large-scale climate-driven distribution shifts in the marine environment, no study has linked rapid ocean warming to a shift in distribution and consequent hybridization of a marine fish species. This study describes rapid warming (0.8°C/decade) in the coastal waters of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone over the last three decades and a concomitant shift by a tem...


Linking inter-decadal changes in British river ecosystems to water quality and climatic dynamics
Macroinvertebrate communities in Western European rivers have changed substantially in recent decades. Understanding the causes is challenging because improvements in water quality have coincided with climatic variations over this period. Using data covering >2300 rivers and 21 years (1991–2011) across England and Wales, we analysed family-level distributions and nationwide trends in prevalen...
Repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity of perfluorododecanoic acid in rats
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are a series of environmental contaminants that have received attention because of their possible adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Although many toxicological studies have been performed on perfluorooctanoic acid with carbon chain length C8, available toxicity data on PFCAs with longer chains are still insufficient to evaluate their hazard. A...

Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers
Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool....
Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES
Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data fro...

Association of Overweight and Elevation with Chronic Knee and Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
It is known that overweight is associated with chronic knee pain (CKP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Several risk factors for these conditions have been postulated, including age, sex, overweight, occupation, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, physical environment has been studied as a potential risk factor in recent years. However, the associations of overweight and physical environme...
Epidemiological Risk Analysis of Home Injuries in Italy (1999–2006)
Home injuries are an important public health issue in both developed and developing countries. This study focused on the Italian epidemiological framework between 1999 and 2006, using a nation-representative sample provided by the National Institute of Statistics. Every year, about 3,000,000 Italian residents reported at least one home injury, with an overall annual rate of 5.2/100 (95% CI 5.1...

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer i...
Identifying Legal, Ecological and Governance Obstacles, and Opportunities for Adapting to Climate Change
Current governance of regional scale water management systems in the United States has not placed them on a path toward sustainability, as conflict and gridlock characterize the social arena and ecosystem services continue to erode. Changing climate may continue this trajectory, but it also provides a catalyst for renewal of ecosystems and a window of opportunity for change in institutions. Res...
Soil Erosion Prediction Using Morgan-Morgan-Finney Model in a GIS Environment in Northern Ethiopia Catchment
Even though scientific information on spatial distribution of hydrophysical parameters is critical for understanding erosion processes and designing suitable technologies, little is known in Geographical Information System (GIS) application in developing spatial hydrophysical data inputs and their application in Morgan-Morgan-Finney (MMF) erosion model. This study was aimed to derive spatial di...
Mobility of toxic elements in carbonate sediments from a mining area in Poland
The Bolesław–Bukowno mining area in Poland is highly polluted by elements such as Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The reactivity and mobility of toxic elements such as Tl are poorly known. Here, we studied by sequential extraction the mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Tl and Zn in sediments from two water reservoirs near Bukowno. show that available As, Co, Mn, Pb and Zn are found in carbonate ...