Environment

A new biological test of water toxicity–yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae conductometric test
This new biological test of water toxicity is based on monitoring of specific conductivity changes of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension as a result of yeast fermentation activity inhibition in toxic conditions. The test was verified on ten substances with various mechanism of toxic effect and the results were compared with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhi...


Role of rat cytochromes P450 in the oxidation of 17α-ethinylestradiol
17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) used as an ingredient of oral contraceptives. Rat hepatic microsomes metabolize EE2 to three products; two of them are hydroxylated EE2 derivatives. Of the hydroxylation reactions, 2-hydroxylation, is the major reaction. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) plays a major role in EE2 hydroxylation. To resolve which rat CYPs are responsible for EE2 oxid...
Protective effects of intranasal curcumin on paraquot induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice
Paraquot (PQ) is widely and commonly used as herbicide and has been reported to be hazardous as it causes lung injury. However, molecular mechanism underlying lung toxicity caused by PQ has not been elucidated. Curcumin, a known anti-inflammatory molecule derived from rhizomes of Curcuma longa has variety of pharmacological activities including free-radical scavenging properties but the protect...


New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations
Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11...
The days of plenty might soon be over in glacierized Central Asian catchments
Despite the fact that the fast-growing population of Central Asia strongly depends on glacial melt water for fresh water supply, irrigation and hydropower production, the impact of glacier shrinkage on water availability remains poorly understood. With an annual area loss of 0.36 to 0.76%, glaciers are retreating particularly fast in the northern Tien Shan, thus causing concern about future wat...


Reliability of African climate prediction and attribution across timescales
This study investigates the reliability of seasonal to multi-decadal climate simulations of the wet seasons of several key African regions. It is found that reliability varies across regions and seasons, and that simulations of precipitation are universally less reliable than simulations of temperature. Similar levels of reliability are found across all the timescales considered for most (but n...
Consumer cost effectiveness of CO 2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets
We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongl...

Effect of particles of ashes produced from sugarcane burning on the respiratory system of rats
The practice of burning sugarcane obtained by non-mechanized harvesting exposes workers and the people of neighboring towns to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) that is harmful to health, and may trigger a series of cardiorespiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the micro-particles coming from sugarcane burning residues and to verify th...
Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey
The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated ...

Evaluation of evidence that the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos is a potential persistent organic pollutant (POP) or persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT)
A number of chemicals, including several organochlorine pesticides, have been identified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, the properties of chlorpyrifos (CPY; CAS No. 2921-88-2) and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPYO; CAS No. 5598-15-2), are assessed relative to criteria for classification of compounds as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBTs). The ma...
Reducing tobacco smoke exposure in children aged below 4years - a randomized controlled trial
To explore the reach of a German population-based household sample using proactive recruitment and to test the efficacy of a behavioral change counseling intervention including feedback about children`s urine cotinine level (CUCL) A randomized controlled trial (2008-2010) was conducted in households with at least one child aged below 4years and at least one current smoker. The study area compri...

Body Mass Index of Children and Youth with an Intellectual Disability by Country Economic Status
Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-<18years) participating...
Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?
Livestock have a large impact on nutrient cycles, with repercussions on environmental and public health issues. Designing interventions for better environmental sustainability will require indicators adapted to the increasingly long and complex supply chains. Nutrient use efficiency is a well know approach to benchmark nutrient management at the animal level, and to some extent at the farm leve...
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from human waste in 1970–2050
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important contributor to climate change. Human waste is an important source of N2O emissions in several world regions, and its share in global emissions may increase in the future. In this paper we, therefore, address N2O emission from human waste: collected (from treatment and from sewage discharges) and uncollected waste. We review existing literature on emissions an...
The institutional regulation of the sustainability of water resources within mining contexts: accountability and plurality
This article reviews recent literature on water and mining and uses illustrations from a large gold mine, Yanacocha, operating in Peru, to assess the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for safeguarding the sustainability of water resources (and water-based ecosystems) in mining regions. The sustainability of water is mainly regulated through what we call ‘upward forms of accountability...