Environment

International trade buffers the impact of future irrigation shortfalls
There is increasing interest in the water–food nexus, especially the restrictive effect of water on food production in hot spots where irrigation stress is growing. However, little is known about the larger-scale implications of future irrigation shortfalls for global trade and economic welfare, as well as of the potential buffering impacts of international trade on the local impacts of irrig...


Water ethics on a human-dominated planet: rationality, context and values in global governance
A discourse on water ethics has emerged as a field linking practical water demands, social practices, and hydrological constraints to philosophic norms. The field arose parallel to growing, global understandings of the interconnected nature of water management and governance challenges. As such, it has been inflected with issues and contests across a range of policy concerns—from holistic and...
The hydraulic description of vegetated river channels: the weaknesses of existing formulations and emerging alternatives
Currently, many of the methods used to predict the effect of vegetation on river flow suffer from one or both of the following problems: (1) a strong dependence on parameters that have a poor physical basis and which are only readily determined using empirical means; and a poor conceptual basis, in terms of the way they represent the effects of vegetation on the flow, especially in higher dimen...


Changes in abundances of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts after the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent huge tsunami greatly affected both human activity and the coastal marine ecosystem along the Pacific coast of Japan. The tsunami also reached Funka Bay in northern Japan and caused serious damage to the scallop cultures there, and this tsunami was believed to have affected the coastal environments in the bay. Therefore, we investigated the...
Characterization of spirolide producing Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) from the western Arctic
Toxin producing dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium Halim represent a risk to Arctic environments and economies. This study provides the first record and a characterization of Alexandrium ostenfeldii in the western Arctic. During a cruise along the coasts of western and southern Greenland 36 isolates of the species were established in August 2012. Plankton samples taken at three different ...


Experimental evaluation of the efficiency of trenches for the mitigation of train-induced vibrations
In this work, the efficiency of absorbing barriers for the mitigation of ground vibrations induced by railway traffic has been evaluated by means of two different experimental campaigns conducted in situ, along the newly-built, high-speed railway line that connects the Italian cities of Milan and Bologna. In the first stage of testing, a series of ideal barriers created from unsupported empty t...
Recycling for small island tourism developments: Food waste composting at Sandals Emerald Bay, Exuma, Bahamas
The ability for small islands to meet sustainability goals is exacerbated by the costs of transporting goods on, and then, wastes off the islands. At small scales, recycling can be prohibitive and complicated by labor costs; the need to profitably recycle and manage solid waste output from tourism is complicated by scale and available technologies. A multi-year study documents the amount of sol...

How effective are current household recycling policies? Results from a national survey of U.S. households
This paper analyzes a unique dataset collected during a 2006 national survey of U. S. households to explore the effectiveness of common household recycling policies for metals, glass, and plastics: curbside recycling, drop-off recycling, deposit–refund systems (bottle bills), and marginal pricing for household waste. After estimating either generalized ordered logit or multinomial logit model...
Managing Climate Risks Using Seasonal Climate Forecast Information in Vhembe District in Limpopo Province, South Africa
The majority of small – scale farmers in the Vhembe district have been experiencing extreme climatic risk, high climate variability and change for a very long time. The majority of these small –scale farmers are vulnerable to all types of climate risk due to their low adaptive capacity, lack of access to technology as a result of level of education, lack of financial resources and also amon...

Multiple Shocks and Risk Management Strategies among Rural Households in Zambia’s Mazabuka District
The objective of this study was to document the kinds of shocks or set-backs and events that commonly cause households to become poorer or destitute and the kinds of risk management strategies they utilize in order to prevent, mitigate or cope with the shocks. The study was conducted in Magobbo area which is located in Mazabuka District in Zambia’s Southern Province using qualitative research...
Mangroves: A Threatened Ecosystem Under-Utilized as a Resource for Scientific Research
Nearly half of the global population lives within 150 km of a coastline, placing mangrove forests under incessant anthropogenic pressure. The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems on the globe, despite being one of the most threatened. The land area covered by the mangrove ecosystem has been reduced by more than half in the last 40 years. This work evaluated the internatio...

Analyzing Growth Patterns of Greater Kumasi Metropolitan Area Using GIS and Multiple Regression Techniques
Currently, half of the world’s population lives in urban areas and the tempo of urbanization is expected to continue unabated during the 21st century, with most of the growth occurring in the developing world. The metropolitanization of African urban centres has brought in its wake several challenges, including uncontrolled physical development, inadequate and deteriorating infrastructure, an...
Evaluation of Potential Fair Trade Standards for an Ethical 3-D Printing Filament
Following the rapid rise of distributed additive manufacturing with 3-D printing has come the technical development of filament extruders and recyclebots, which can turn both virgin polymer pellets and post-consumer shredded plastic into 3-D filament. Similar to the solutions proposed for other forms of ethical manufacturing, it is possible to consider a form of ethical 3-D printer filament dis...
Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web
Radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3–500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-1...
Deposition-flux to lung dose” – a new approach in radon inhalation dosimetry using wire-mesh capped direct radon progeny sensor
Assigning indoor radon doses to populations based on the widely used, cumulative radon concentration monitoring techniques is beset with errors arising due to uncertain equilibrium factors and unattached fractions. Moreover, the dose conversion factor (DCF) of radon decay products may vary by a factor of ∼40 within the particle size range from ∼0.5 nm to tens of micrometers. An ideal detec...