Environment

Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were o...


Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction
Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients...
Prediction of solid-solution partitioning coefficients (Kd) for cationic metals in soils using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models, using mid-infrared (MIR) diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed (DRIFT) spectra, were used to predict distribution coefficient (Kd) values for selected added soluble metal cations (Ag+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sn4+, and Zn2+) in 4813 soils of the Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural Soils (GEMAS) program. For the development of the PLSR mode...


Rod-shaped iron oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than sphere-shaped nanoparticles to murine macrophage cells
Variable sizes of nanoparticles (NPs), ranging from nano to micro scale, have been of toxicological interest. We hypothesized that the shape as well as size of iron oxide (Fe2O3) NPs is one of the major factors contributing to particle cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity to mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) was investigated using three different particles: micro-sized Fe2O3 (M-Fe2O3), nano-sized Fe2O3 ...
Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania
The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground L...


Getting to low-cost algal biofuels: A monograph on conventional and cutting-edge harvesting and extraction technologies
Among the most formidable challenges to algal biofuels is the ability to harvest algae and extract intracellular lipids at low cost and with a positive energy balance. In this monograph, we construct two paradigms that contrast energy requirements and costs of conventional and cutting-edge Harvesting and Extraction (H&E) technologies. By application of the parity criterion and the moder...
Water footprint based water allowance coefficient
In our work, we tried to determine asset value of water from natural resources. During the research we decided that a method based on allowance capitalization can be the most effective. Thus, the developed method is able to estimate water property value in a nationally uniformed system by utilization final products. It has been decided that the determined method of Water Allowance Coefficient (...

Long-term evolution of the composition of surface water from the River Gharasoo, Iran: a case study using multivariate statistical techniques
We report an assessment of the quality of surface water from the River Gharasoo, Iran, with rainfall data. EC, pH, HCO3−, Cl−, SO4, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, %Na, and sodium adsorption ratio results, monitored monthly by two sampling stations over a period of 40 years, were held by the Hydraulic Works Organization in Kermanshah City. Principal-components analysis of the data revealed three factors ...
Minimizing the ecological footprint of food: closing yield and efficiency gaps simultaneously?
Agriculture as a source of food has a substantial spillover that affects the Earth's ecosystems. This results in an ‘ecological footprint’ of food: negative environmental impacts per capita. The footprint depends on the dietary choice of types and amounts of food, on the non-consumed part of product flows and its fate (‘waste’ or ‘reused’), on transport and processing along the valu...

Ecological intensification of agriculture—sustainable by nature
Strategies towards agricultural intensification differ on the definitions of sustainability and the variables included in its evaluation. Different notions of the qualifiers of intensification (ecological, sustainable, durable, etc.) need to be unpacked. This paper examines conceptual differences between sustainable and ecological intensification as used in research, development, policy and the...
Making transition towards ecological intensification of agriculture a reality: the gaps in and the role of scientific knowledge
Transition towards ecological intensification in agriculture is a knowledge intensive process that should not be perceived as the promotion of old traditional practices. The science supporting such an option is relatively young and its analytical framework has not been tested over many years. It is therefore important to identify and address what we poorly know, that is understanding bio-ecolog...

Assessing non-CO2 climate-forcing emissions and mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa
There are few direct measurements of anthropogenic climate-forcing emissions in Africa, making it difficult to accurately assess current emissions and to anticipate changes in future emissions. Emissions databases suggest that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to less than 15% of the world's population, is responsible for 11% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and 18% of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N...
Reducing nitrous oxide emissions from the global food system
The global food system is a main source of nitrous oxide (N2O), estimated at 4.1–4.4TgN2O-N for 2010. Here, we review this source and assess its mitigation potential. Five mitigation strategies were explored and compared to a ‘business as usual’ (BAU) scenario: firstly, improved crop production; secondly, improved animal production; thirdly, improved manure management; fourthly improved f...
Crossing boundaries: complex systems, transdisciplinarity and applied impact agendas
This paper highlights the challenges of distilling generalizable principles and guidelines for sustainable co-management arrangements and demonstrating the practical impact of the underlying research. We explore the complexities of multi-country, socio-ecological research and address the challenges of moving beyond pure research to engage with the science-policy-practice interfaces. Growing dem...
A behavioral perspective on the governance of common resources
During the last 40 years evidence from systematic case study analysis and behavioral experiments have provided a comprehensive perspective on how communities can manage common resources in a sustainable way. The conventional theory based on selfish rational actors cannot explain empirical observations. A more comprehensive theoretical framework of human behavior is emerging that include concept...