Environment

Effect of particles of ashes produced from sugarcane burning on the respiratory system of rats
The practice of burning sugarcane obtained by non-mechanized harvesting exposes workers and the people of neighboring towns to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) that is harmful to health, and may trigger a series of cardiorespiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the micro-particles coming from sugarcane burning residues and to verify th...


Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey
The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated ...
Evaluation of evidence that the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos is a potential persistent organic pollutant (POP) or persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT)
A number of chemicals, including several organochlorine pesticides, have been identified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, the properties of chlorpyrifos (CPY; CAS No. 2921-88-2) and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPYO; CAS No. 5598-15-2), are assessed relative to criteria for classification of compounds as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBTs). The ma...


Reducing tobacco smoke exposure in children aged below 4years - a randomized controlled trial
To explore the reach of a German population-based household sample using proactive recruitment and to test the efficacy of a behavioral change counseling intervention including feedback about children`s urine cotinine level (CUCL) A randomized controlled trial (2008-2010) was conducted in households with at least one child aged below 4years and at least one current smoker. The study area compri...
Body Mass Index of Children and Youth with an Intellectual Disability by Country Economic Status
Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-<18years) participating...


Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?
Livestock have a large impact on nutrient cycles, with repercussions on environmental and public health issues. Designing interventions for better environmental sustainability will require indicators adapted to the increasingly long and complex supply chains. Nutrient use efficiency is a well know approach to benchmark nutrient management at the animal level, and to some extent at the farm leve...
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from human waste in 1970–2050
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important contributor to climate change. Human waste is an important source of N2O emissions in several world regions, and its share in global emissions may increase in the future. In this paper we, therefore, address N2O emission from human waste: collected (from treatment and from sewage discharges) and uncollected waste. We review existing literature on emissions an...

The institutional regulation of the sustainability of water resources within mining contexts: accountability and plurality
This article reviews recent literature on water and mining and uses illustrations from a large gold mine, Yanacocha, operating in Peru, to assess the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for safeguarding the sustainability of water resources (and water-based ecosystems) in mining regions. The sustainability of water is mainly regulated through what we call ‘upward forms of accountability...
Environmental sustainability and legal plurality in irrigation: the Balinese subak
This paper reviews the literature on subak irrigators’ institutions on the Indonesian island of Bali, with special reference to legal plurality and environmental sustainability. The subak is well known in irrigation studies as a strong and effective institution. Therefore it is relevant to investigate it under conditions of change. The growth of tourism and other developments have put Balines...

Deployment length and the mental health of diplomats
While there has been considerable research into the psychosocial consequences of tour length for military personnel, this subject has not been studied in other occupational groups who also deploy staff to high-threat areas. To carry out a comprehensive review of relevant published literature to inform diplomatic organizations that deploy staff in high-threat postings (HTPs). We searched appropr...
Spatial distributions of radionuclides deposited onto ground soil around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and their temporal change until December 2012
Spatial distributions and temporal changes of radioactive fallout released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident have been investigated by two campaigns with three measurement schedules. The inventories (activities per unit area) of the radionuclides deposited onto ground soil were measured using portable gamma-ray spectrometers at nearly 1000 locations (at most) per measuremen...

Use of recycled products in UK construction industry: An empirical investigation into critical impediments and strategies for improvement
Construction industry consumes about half of all material resources taken from nature, and generates a large portion of waste to landfill. A way of tackling negative environmental impacts impending from continuous material extraction and waste generation is the use of recycled materials for construction projects. However, the use of recycled materials is yet to become a commonplace in construct...
Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle
Terrestrial ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and in the regulation of climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions increased from 2.4 Pg C in 1960 to 8.7 Pg C per year in 2008 while terrestrial ecosystems absorbed roughly 30% during that period (Le Quere et al., 2009). If that absorption capacity were to change, in either direction, it would have a large impact on atmos...
The combinational effects between sulfonamides and metals on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
As emerging pollutants, antibiotic sulfonamides are continuously emitted into the environment and encounter those already-existing contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, which may cause toxicity interactions in polluted habitats. So far, the sulfonamide mixture effects and the combinational effects between sulfonamides and metals have been seldom studied. In this study, lifespan, lethality (24 and 1...
Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background, developmental and environmental conditions in barley
Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in genebanks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with ...