Biology

Site selection for habitat conservation/restoration of threatened freshwater fishes in artificial channels of northern Kyushu Island, Japan
The aim of this study was to propose a method for site selection for habitat conservation or restoration of threatened freshwater fishes inhabiting ditches or canals in the main plains of northern Kyushu Island, Japan. The environmental data of 4,084 third meshes in six regions and faunal data of 337 meshes that included 462 sites were analyzed using generalized liner mixed models, and species ...


Continuous cultures of phytoplankton
The development of cultures of phytoplankton adapting throughout several days in an axenic, continuous-flow chemostat to yield a steady kinetic state of competing species is described mathematically. The adaptation of the growth rate to the chemostat environment inhibits integration of the equation of conservation of phytoplankton populations, though eventually when a steady state is reached th...
Observations on the increase of wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata abundance, in the eastern Adriatic Sea: problems and opportunities
The recent increase of the local population of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, in three areas along the southeastern Adriatic Sea: Malostonski Bay (Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina), Neretva Estuary (Croatia) and Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro) and its adverse effects on shellfish culture by preying on Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the European flat oyster, Ostrea edu...


Influence of Dimerization of Lipopeptide Laur-Orn-Orn-Cys–NH2 and an N-terminal Peptide of Human Lactoferricin on Biological Activity
Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide that is cleaved by pepsin to lactoferricin (LFcin). LFcin has an enhanced antimicrobial activity as compared to that of LF. Recently several hetero- and homodimeric antimicrobial peptides stabilized by a single disulfide bond linking linear polypeptide chains have been discovered. We have demonstrated that the S–S bond heterodime...
Interrogation of living myocardium in multiple static deformation states with diffusion tensor and diffusion spectrum imaging
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals valuable insights into tissue histo-anatomy and microstructure, and has steadily gained traction in the cardiac community. However, its wider use in small animal cardiac imaging in vivo has been constrained by its extreme sensitivity to motion, exaggerated by the high heart rates usually seen in rodents. Imaging of the isolated heart el...


The roles of FoxOs in modulation of aging by calorie restriction
FoxO activity and modifications, such as its phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation, may help drive the expression of genes involved in combating oxidative stress by causing the epigenetic modifications, and thus, preserve cellular function during aging and age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. Insulin signaling has been postulated to influence the aging ...
Up-regulation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and increase of NAD+ levels by glucose restriction extend replicative lifespan of human fibroblast Hs68 cells
Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in a remarkable range of organisms. However, the mechanisms of CR related to the longevity effects are not fully elucidated to date. Using human fibroblast Hs68 (Hs68) cells cultured at a lower level of medium glucose (i.e., glucose restriction; GR) to mimic CR, we investigated the crucial role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), nicotina...

Pectis harryi (Compositae: Heliantheae: Pectidinae), a new species from a rock platform in the Departamento de Santa Cruz, Eastern Bolivia
A new, dwarf perennial species of Pectis (Compositae: Heliantheae: Pectidinae), Pectis harryi, is described and illustrated from the Departamento de Santa Cruz, eastern Bolivia. The new species adds to the increasingly recognised richness of the rock platforms and low granite shield inselbergs (lajas) of the provinces of Ñuflo de Chavez and Velasco. The species has had its Conservation Status ...
Hypertension pulmonaire et maladies hépatiques
L’hypertension portopulmonaire (HTPoP) se définit par l’association d’une hypertension portale et d’une hypertension artérielle pulmonaire précapillaire (PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg, Pcp < 15 mmHg et RVP > 3 unités Wood [UW]). Elle présente les mêmes caractéristiques anatomopathologiques que l’HTAP idiopathique. Sa prévalence chez les patients cirrhotiques ou souff...

Prise en charge du rétrécissement aortique en préopératoire d’une chirurgie non cardiaque
Le rétrécissement aortique (RA) serré, défini par une surface aortique < 1 cm2 ou 0,6 cm2/m2 de surface corporelle, est un facteur de risque péri-opératoire de mortalité et d’infarctus du myocarde lors d’une chirurgie non cardiaque. Le risque est d’autant plus important que le RA serré est symptomatique. L’examen clinique doit rechercher de façon systématique un RA ...
Lhx1 maintains synchrony among circadian oscillator neurons of the SCN
The robustness and limited plasticity of the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is attributed to strong intercellular communication among its constituent neurons. However, factors that specify this characteristic feature of the SCN are unknown. Here, we identified Lhx1 as a regulator of SCN coupling. A phase-shifting light pulse causes acute reduction in Lhx1 expression...

Bidirectional helical motility of cytoplasmic dynein around microtubules
Cytoplasmic dynein is a molecular motor responsible for minus-end-directed cargo transport along microtubules (MTs). Dynein motility has previously been studied on surface-immobilized MTs in vitro, which constrains the motors to move in two dimensions. In this study, we explored dynein motility in three dimensions using an MT bridge assay. We found that dynein moves in a helical trajectory arou...
Comparative study of the fluid viscosity in tarsal hairy attachment systems of flies and beetles
Wet adhesive systems of insects strongly rely for their function on the formation of capillary bridges with the substrate. Studies on the chemical composition and evaporation dynamics of tarsal secretions strongly suggest a difference in chemistry of secretion in beetles and flies, both possessing hairy attachment devices. This difference is assumed to influence the viscosity of the secretion. ...
Actin flow and talin dynamics govern rigidity sensing in actin-integrin linkage through talin extension
At cell–substrate adhesion sites, the linkage between actin filaments and integrin is regulated by mechanical stiffness of the substrate. Of potential molecular regulators, the linker proteins talin and vinculin are of particular interest because mechanical extension of talin induces vinculin binding with talin, which reinforces the actin–integrin linkage. For understanding the mole...
Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique
We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show h...