Biology

Hazardous effect of ZnS nanoparticles on the feeding behaviour, growth and maturation process of the Asian striped catfish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1794)
The Asian striped catfish Mystus vittatus (Bloch) are exposed to ZnS nanoparticles of different concentrations and its impact on feeding behaviour, growth and maturity of the fish is studied. The study reveals the fact that under nanoparticle exposure, the feeding behaviour, growth and maturation stages depart from that of the controlled conditions. The growth is found to be restricted with inc...


Immunoadjuvant effect of garlic (Allium sativum)–mineral oil suspension on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu, Labeo rohita
The immunomodulatory effect of garlic–mineral oil as a modified adjuvant was investigated in rohu, Labeo rohita along with formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila. The garlic extract was not having any proteolytic effect on the tested antigen as marked in SDS-PAGE. The efficacy of graded levels of modified adjuvant formulation was assessed by measuring serum hemolysin and agglutination titers as...
Long bone cortices in a growth series of Apatosaurus sp. (Dinosauria: Diplodocidae): geometry, body mass, and crystallite orientation of giant animals
Comparative studies of body mass, cortical bone geometry, and preferred crystallographic orientation (texture) of bone mineral in an ontogenetic series of the sauropod, Apatosaurus sp., and recent animals are reported. The cortical bone geometry shows that sauropods have an expansion of the cortical thickness as a result of their heavier mass. It is shown that a universal power-law relationship...


The three-front model: a developmental explanation of long bone diaphyseal histology of Sauropoda
The bone histology of non-avian dinosaurs is enlightening for understanding many aspects of the growth and development of these long-extinct animals. The rate of bone apposition and remodelling in the shaft of long bones appears to be accelerated in some groups and decelerated in others. We propose a developmental model to illustrate these fundamental aspects of long bone diaphyseal histology a...
Amniote vertebral microanatomy – what are the major trends?
This contribution qualitatively and quantitatively analyses vertebral microanatomical features based on virtual sections of numerous amniote dorsal vertebrae obtained from conventional and synchrotron X-ray microtomographic investigations. It demonstrates the great diversity of amniote vertebral microanatomy and highlights that it reflects structural, phylogenetic and ecological signals. Variou...


The microstructural variability of the intercentra among temnospondyl amphibians
The histology of the vertebral centrum of the morphologically diverse Temnospondyli is poorly known. In this study, the variability of the histological framework of various taxa from several Permian and Triassic localities was investigated for the first time. Twelve intercentra, forming the anterior part of the diplospondylous centra of temnospondyls, were examined histologically. The intercent...
Turtle humeral microanatomy and its relationship to lifestyle
Among living turtles, highly terrestrial or highly aquatic modes of life are likely to have developed from a plesiomorphic semi-aquatic one. A taxonomically comprehensive data set of turtle humeri was examined to ascertain if adaptation to an aquatic or a terrestrial lifestyle affects the general internal bone structure. Three-dimensional and virtual cross-sections were obtained from computed m...

Bone histology, phylogeny, and palaeognathous birds (Aves: Palaeognathae)
The presence of a phylogenetic signal in the variation of osteohistological features has been recently debated in the literature. Previous studies have found a significant signal for some features, but these results were obtained on a small amount of characters and a reduced sample. Here we perform a comprehensive study in which we quantify the phylogenetic signal on 62 osteohistological featur...
Correlation of quantitative bone histology data with life history and climate: a phylogenetic approach
Growth rate is a fitness component that is determined by intrinsic (e.g. metabolism) and extrinsic (environment) factors, the relative importance of which remains to be ascertained. Vascular and cellular networks of primary compact bone tissue correlate with bone growth rate in vertebrates. Here, we aim to determine the main factor, either intrinsic or extrinsic, that shapes the vascular and ce...

Geometric and metabolic constraints on bone vascular supply in diapsids
Periosteal, endosteal, and intracortical blood vessels bring oxygen and nutrients to, and evacuate the metabolic by-products from, osteocytes. This vascular network is in communication with bone cells through a network of canaliculi containing osteocyte cytoplasmic processes. The geometric and physiological constraints involved in the relationships between osteocytes (including canaliculi) and ...
Ecological and life-history correlates of enamel growth in ruminants (Artiodactyla)
Enamel incremental markings are widely used to reconstruct growth patterns of extinct mammals. However, the likely existence of an allometric relationship between dental morphology and enamel growth suggests that caution is required when making life-history inferences based on these microstructures. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential of using enamel growth rate as a reliabl...

The meek inherit the earth: less aggressive wild mice are more successful in challenging situations
Numerous studies have shown an association between aggressiveness and several other behavioural traits. For example, more aggressive animals were bold and active explorers tending to form persistent routines whereas less aggressive animals were shy, careful but more flexible. While the former are thought to be more successful under stable conditions the latter should have advantages in more dyn...
Influence of the Purkinje-muscle junction on transmural repolarization heterogeneity
To elucidate the properties of the PMJ and myocardium underlying these effects. Transmural heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD) is known to play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. Regions of non-uniformities of APD gradients often overlap considerably with the location of Purkinje-muscle junctions (PMJs). We therefore hypothesized that such junctions are novel sources of local e...
Developing a common currency for stable isotope analyses of nesting marine turtles
Understanding geospatial linkages is critical to the development of appropriate management and conservation strategies for migratory species. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool that is performed routinely across taxa to unravel migratory connectivity. Marine turtles are a highly migratory and widely distributed taxon, but are largely studied at breeding areas. Isotopic values of several...
Higher trophic level prey does not represent a higher quality diet in a threatened seabird: implications for relating population dynamics to diet shifts inferred from stable isotopes
Diet quality is a key determinant of population dynamics. If a higher trophic level, more fish-based diet is of higher quality for marine predators, then individuals with a higher trophic level diet should have a greater body mass than those feeding at a lower trophic level. We examined this hypothesis using stable isotope analysis to infer dietary trophic level and foraging habitat over three...