Metabolic rates of a hypogean and an epigean species of copepod in an alluvial aquifer
Reduced metabolic rates of groundwater taxa, compared to those of surface water species, have long been inferred to be an adaptive trait where there is a low and discontinuous food supply and unpredictable shifts between hypoxic and normoxic conditions. However, there have been neither measurements of the respiratory rate of groundwater copepods nor a comparison of rates between closely related...

Factors influencing nitrogen processing in lakes: an experimental approach
To help improve our understanding of the nitrogen cycle in lakes, particularly in the context of climate change, we analysed total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3−-N) data from six mesocosm experiments (in Denmark, U. K., China and Turkey) covering different climatic regions. We assessed the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading, temperature, salinity and water level on N processi...
Spatial and seasonal changes in species diversity of epilithic fungi along environmental gradients of a river
Fungi in stream ecosystems play a critical role in decomposing organic matter. However, despite their ecological importance, few studies have investigated spatial and seasonal variation in lotic fungi. We hypothesised that the taxonomic composition and richness of epilithic fungal assemblages would change along the longitudinal river gradient from headwaters to lower reaches. To test this hypot...

Age-Related Declines of Stability in Visual Perceptual Learning
Chang et al. find that older individuals learn task-irrelevant visual features that younger subjects suppress and avoid learning, suggesting that the older brain is less stable than the younger, tending to learn unimportant, unnecessary visual information, running the risk of replacing stored crucial information with unimportant new information.
Balboa Binds to Pickpocket In Vivo and Is Required for Mechanical Nociception in Drosophila Larvae
Mauthner et al. identify a Drosophila ion channel subunit required for noxious mechanosensation and name it after the fictional prizefighter Rocky Balboa (due to his legendary pain resistance). They demonstrate in vivo physical interactions between Balboa and a related channel, thus supporting a heteromeric model of pain-sensing complexes.

GABAergic Modulation of Visual Gamma and Alpha Oscillations and Its Consequences for Working Memory Performance
Lozano-Soldevilla et al. show that GABAergic enhancement boosts stimulus-induced gamma power while the frequency decreases in human visual cortex. This finding is consistent with mechanistic models for rhythm generation derived from the rat hippocampus. Also, occipital alpha power modulations decrease with GABA, predicting performance impairment.
Coherence among Head Direction Cells before Eye Opening in Rat Pups
Bjerknes et al. show that head direction cells are present in young rat pups several days before eye opening and initiation of active exploration. There is considerable drift in the cells’ directional preferences, but the relative differences in firing direction are maintained, consistent with a predominantly innate attractor network for directional representation.

Multilocus Adaptation Associated with Heat Resistance in Reef-Building Corals
Coral reefs are threatened by rising ocean temperatures, but in warm microclimates, some corals thrive. Bay and Palumbi show genetic differences at over 100 loci in heat-tolerant colonies of a tabletop coral. The results suggest that some coral populations might evolve higher heat tolerance as global temperatures increase.
Fewer but Not Smaller Schools in Declining Fish and Krill Populations
Brierley and Cox describe a consistent, significant positive linear relationship between the numbers of schools in stocks of krill and fish and stock sizes. School-size distributions appear not to reduce as stocks decline. Since fishers and predators target schools, the last survivors of heavily exploited stocks could be left vulnerable to capture.

Characterization of leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis and association analysis with body measurement traits
Leptin has a pleiotropic effect on regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. This property supports leptin and its receptor as candidate genes for evaluating genetic polymorphisms to associate with growth, milk yield and other economic traits. The aim of this study is to characterize the leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis, to identify sing...
Correlation of ghrelin concentration and ghrelin, ghrelin-O-acetyltransferase (GOAT) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a mRNAs expression in the proventriculus and brain of the growing chicken
To determine mechanisms for age-related decrease of GHS-R1a expression in the chicken proventriculus, changes in mRNA expression of ghrelin and ghrelin-O-acetyltransferase (GOAT) as well as ghrelin concentrations in the proventriculus and plasma were examined in growing chickens. Changes in expression levels of ghrelin, GOAT and GHS-R1a mRNAs were also examined in different brain regions (pitui...

Cellular Dynamics Drives the Emergence of Supracellular Structure in the Cyanobacterium, Phormidium sp. KS
Motile filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Arthrospira, are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. As noted by Nägeli in 1860, many of them form complex three-dimensional or two-dimensional structures, such as biofilm, weed-like thalli, bundles of filaments and spirals, which we call supracellular structures. In all of these structures, individual filam...
Patriotic Values for Public Goods: Transnational Trade-Offs for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services?
The natural environment is central to human well-being through its role in ecosystem service (ES) provision. Managing ES often requires coordination across international borders. Although this may deliver greater conservation gains than countries acting alone, we do not know whether the public supports such an international approach. Using the same questionnaire in three countries, we quantifie...
A Vision for Change in Bioscience Education: Building on Knowledge from the Past
High-quality undergraduate education is central to the success of all life scientists. Several major bioscience educational issues are the targets of much debate, research, funding, publications, and reports (e.g., Vision and Change). Surprisingly, these issues are considered by modern bioscience instructors as unresolved, despite historical reports that claim the contrary. Here, we illustrate ...
Biomarkers of glioblastoma multiforme
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary malignancy of the central nervous system. Modern treatments using surgery and/or chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are improving survival of patients, but prognosis is still very poor, depending inter alia on the patients’ individual genomic traits. Most GBMs are primary; however, secondary GBMs have a better prognosis. Aberra...