Biology

Macrophyte diversity-abundance relationship with respect to invasive and native dominants
Many experiments have demonstrated positive relationships between plant diversity and abundance, but few have examined the diversity-abundance relationship in non-experimental systems, aquatic systems, or in the presence of invasive (non-native dominant) species. We sampled the aquatic macrophyte community of a large lake in northern Wisconsin to examine: 1) the diversity-abundance relationship...


Aggregation of monocytes and platelets interferes in measurement of monocyte viability with phosphatidylserine expression but not with mitochondrial membrane potential in whole blood
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce cell death and procoagulant tissue factor (TF) in purified cultured human monocytes. Phosphatidylserine (PS)-expression on the outer membrane of monocytes following cell death contributes to increased procoagulant activity. LPS also induce TF on monocytes in whole blood (WB), but it is unknown whether LPS induce cell death. Activated platelets that agg...
Feeding biomechanics of five demersal Antarctic fishes
There is scant information available on the ecomorphology of Antarctic fishes, and especially on their feeding capabilities. We measured interspecific variation in mechanical advantage (MA), force-producing capability, and suction index for the jaws of the five dominant taxa of high-Antarctic fishes: the nototheniid Trematomus bernacchii; the zoarcids Pachycara brachycephalum, Lycodichthys dear...


High throughput in vitro micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) from spindle leaf roll segments: Cost analysis for agri-business industry
High throughput micropropagation (HTM) protocol in sugarcane through direct shoot regeneration comprising five stages, was developed for agri-business industry. The distinction of the protocol lies in direct adventitious shoot regeneration without an intervening callus phase and liberty over the number of subculture passages leading to high rates of synchronous plant production. Stage 0 dealt w...
Callus induction and regeneration in Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel ex Wimm
The development of tissue-culture systems in duckweed has been limited to species of the genus Lemna. Here we report on a tissue-culture system (callus induction, callus growth and plant regeneration) for the rootless duckweed Wolffia arrhiza. We developed a two-step procedure for callus induction in Wolffia using Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium containing glucose, mannitol and sorbitol. I...


Effects of acetaldehyde and L-carnitine on morphology and enzyme activity of myocardial mitochondria in rats
This study aimed to investigate the effects of acetaldehyde (AA) and L-carnitine (LC) on morphology and enzyme activity of myocardial mitochondria in rats. Sixty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group (n = 20), the AA low-dose group (n = 15), the AA high-dose group (n = 15) and the AA + LC group (n = 15). Different doses (110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg) AA ...
The Intracellular Inhibition of HCV Replication Represents a Novel Mechanism of Action by the Innate Immune Lactoferrin protein
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public-health problem with 130-170 million individuals chronically infected worldwide. In order to halt the epidemic, therapy against HCV will need to be both effective and widely available. Studies focusing on safe and affordable natural product active against HCV have revealed the antiviral activity of the human Lactoferrin (hLF) protein which binds and neut...

Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO2. Both groups completed a 60-minute heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO2) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3°C...
Repair of O6-methylguanine adducts in human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase
O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a single-cycle DNA repair enzyme that removes pro-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine adducts from DNA. Its functions with short single-stranded and duplex substrates have been characterized, but its ability to act on other DNA structures remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the functions of this enzyme on O6-methylguanine (6mG) adducts in the four-str...

Effects of genetic variations on microRNA: target interactions
Genetic variations within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites can affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation, which may lead to phenotypes and diseases. We perform a transcriptome-scale analysis of genetic variants and miRNA:target interactions identified by CLASH. This analysis reveals that rare variants tend to reside in CDSs, whereas common variants tend to reside in the 3' UTRs. miRNA binding sites a...
Capability of ganglioside GM1 in modulating interactions, structure, location and dynamics of peptides/proteins: biophysical approaches
Gangliosides, are glycosphingolipids, present in all vertebrate plasma membranes with particular abundance in nerve cell membrane. Gangliosides can act as portals for antimicrobial peptides, hormones, viruses, lectins, toxins and pathogens. They are strategically positioned on the outer membrane and hence can participate in a large number of recognition processes. Their abundance in nerve cell ...

Quantitative proteomics at different depths in human articular cartilage reveals unique patterns of protein distribution
The articular cartilage of synovial joints ensures friction-free mobility and attenuates mechanical impact on the joint during movement. These functions are mediated by the complex network of extracellular molecules characteristic for articular cartilage. Zonal differences in the extracellular matrix (ECM)1 are well recognized. However, the knowledge about the precise molecular composition in t...
Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiv...
First record of plicidentine in Synapsida and patterns of tooth root shape change in Early Permian sphenacodontians
Recent histological studies have revealed a diversity of dental features in Permo-Carboniferous tetrapods. Here, we report on the occurrence of plicidentine (infolded dentine around the base of the tooth root) in Sphenacodontia, the first such documentation in Synapsida, the clade that includes mammals. Five taxa were examined histologically, Ianthodon schultzei, Sphenacodon ferocior, Dimetrodo...
Mercury and methyl mercury concentration in sediment, benthic, Barbus Grypus and pelagic, Barbus esocinus fish species, from Musa estuary, Iran
The concentrations of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in sediment and tissues of Barbus grypus and Barbus esocinus fish species from Musa estuary, north part of the Persian Gulf, were measured. The order of Hg and MeHg concentrations in the sediment and tissues of the fish species was as follows: liver > gill > muscle > sediment. In the tissues of two fish species, the Hg and MeHg ...