Biology

Oldest known cranium of a juvenile New World monkey (Early Miocene, Patagonia, Argentina): Implications for the taxonomy and the molar eruption pattern of early platyrrhines
A juvenile cranium of Homunculus patagonicus ameghino, 1891a from the late Early Miocene of Santa Cruz Province (Argentina) provides the first evidence of developing cranial anatomy for any fossil platyrrhine. The specimen preserves the rostral part of the cranium with deciduous and permanent alveoli and teeth. The dental eruption sequence in the new specimen and a reassessment of eruption patt...


A randomised placebo-controlled trial of weekly paclitaxel and saracatinib (AZD0530) in platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer
Despite strong preclinical data, addition of the Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) does not improve activity of weekly paclitaxel in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. However, we show that a taxane-free interval of at least 6 months has a significant impact upon response to weekly paclitaxel and survival in these patients.
Functional morphology of the reproductive system and sperm transfer in Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea), and their relation to the mating system
The morphology of the reproductive system of a stenopodidean decapod is described here for the first time, with an interpretation of the sperm transfer process. Pairs of adults of Stenopus hispidus were maintained under laboratory conditions to observe reproductive cycles. Mating behavior and sperm transfer were video-recorded for analysis. After copulation, the shrimps were anesthetized and di...


Chaetal arrangement and chaetogenesis of hooded hooks in Lumbrineris (Scoletoma) fragilis and Lumbrineris tetraura (Eunicida, Annelida)
As the structure and arrangement of chaetae are highly specific for annelid species and higher taxonomic entities, we assume that rather conservative information guarantees formation of specific chaetae. Each chaeta of an annelid is formed within an ectodermal invagination, and the modulation of the apical microvilli pattern of the basalmost cell of this invagination determines the structure of...
Identifying USPs regulating immune signals in Drosophila: USP2 deubiquitinates Imd and promotes its degradation by interacting with the proteasome
Rapid activation of innate immune defences upon microbial infection depends on the evolutionary conserved NF-κB dependent signals which deregulation is frequently associated with chronic inflammation and oncogenesis. These signals are tightly regulated by the linkage of different kinds of ubiquitin moieties on proteins that modify either their activity or their stability. To investigate how ub...


Comprehensive morphological analysis of individual peripheral neuron dendritic arbors in ascidian larvae using the photoconvertible protein kaede
Ascidian larval epidermal sensory neurons (ESNs) each extend a single cilium into the outer body structure, or tunic, to form a unique external sensory network, the ASNET (ascidian dendritic network in tunic). The functions of ESNs and the ASNET are unknown, though it has been suggested that they play important roles in swimming larvae. In this study, we used transgenic larva expressing the pho...
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate placental c-myc and hTERT in normal and pathological pregnancies; c-myc as a novel fetal DNA epigenetic marker for pre-eclampsia
Placental development is known for its resemblance with tumor development, such as in the expression of oncogenes (c-myc) and telomerase (hTERT). The expression of c-myc and hTERT is up-regulated during early pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs). To determine the role of DNA methylation [via methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM)] and histone modifications [vi...

Borneo and Indochina are Major Evolutionary Hotspots for Southeast Asian Biodiversity
Tropical Southeast Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the Southeast Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) datasets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversit...
The inference of gene trees with species trees
This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seld...

Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Early Land Plants: Mitigating the Effects of Saturation, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Codon-usage Bias
Phylogenetic analyses using concatenation of genomic-scale data have been seen as the panacea for resolving the incongruences among inferences from few or single genes. However, phylogenomics may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the, perhaps cumulative, effects of saturation, among-taxa compositional (GC content) heterogeneity, or codon-usage bias plaguing the individual nucleotide lo...
Lipid rafts couple class A scavenger receptors to phospholipase A2 activation during macrophage adhesion
SR-A mediated macrophage adhesion to modified ECM proteins in a process that involves physical attachment of SR-A to modified ECM and activation of Lyn-PI3K and PLA2-12/15-lipoxygenase signaling pathways. Structurally, SR-A-mediated cell adhesion requires a 6-aa membrane-proximal cytoplasmic motif. However, the mechanism that couples SR-A-mediated adhesion to activation of these distinct signal...

Expression and Biochemical Characterization of a Thermophilic Organic Solvent-Tolerant Lipase from Bacillus sp. DR90
The objective of the present study was the isolation, molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a thermophilic organic solvent-resistant lipase from Bacillus sp. DR90. The lipase gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using pET-28a(+) vector. The purification of recombinant lipase was conducted by nickel affinity chromatography and its biochemical properties were determine...
How multidrug resistance in typhoid fever affects treatment options
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an enteric pathogen that causes typhoid fever. The infection can be severe, with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring antimicrobial therapy. Cases of S. Typhi infection in the United States and other developed countries are often associated with travel to endemic regions. The empirical use of first-line drugs for therapy, including ampi...
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of substance addiction
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method of brain stimulation used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, but is still in the early stages of study as addiction treatment. We identified 19 human studies using repetitive TMS (rTMS) to manipulate drug craving or use, which exposed a total of 316 adults to active rTMS. Nine studies involved tobacco, six alcohol, t...
Cell mechanics: principles, practices, and prospects
Cells generate and sustain mechanical forces within their environment as part of their normal physiology. They are active materials that can detect mechanical stimulation by the activation of mechanosensitive signaling pathways, and respond to physical cues through cytoskeletal re-organization and force generation. Genetic mutations and pathogens that disrupt the cytoskeletal architecture can r...