The effects of pre-anthesis water deficit and cycle length were examined in Papaver somniferum L., cultivated for alkaloid production, in two locations in southern Spain. The vegetative period was shortened by extending the photoperiod through supplemental lighting in the field, while water deficit in pre-anthesis was induced by avoiding irrigations and installing rain shelters. The treatments were: IN (irrigated-normal photoperiod), IL (irrigated-hastened flowering), DN (water deficit in pre-anthesis-normal photoperiod) and DL (water deficit in pre-anthesis and hastened flowering). The artificial photoperiod hastened the flowering by 15 and 21 days, for irrigated and deficit treatments respectively. Seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from.
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