The occurrence of Nemanthus californicus on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the first record outside the type locality in Baja California, is reported. A re-description of its anatomy and notes on its biology are provided. Nemanthus californicus settled on the antipatharian Myriopathes panamensis with the pedal disc surrounding the branch in part or totally, and showed traces of asexual reproduction, an expected adaptation to colonize the black coral. Damage to colonies was significant, causing the death of the black coral. This type of relationship could be parasitism.
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