The phytochemical, elemental and hematologic effect of the crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) in wistar albino rats to ascertain the claims by herbalists and traditionalists in the management of anemia was evaluated. The Phytochemistry revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids in low and moderate concentrations. Alkaloids, phlobatannins and anthraquinones were absent. The elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration when compared to WHO concentration in ppm. The amount of manganese, zinc and silicon is low, whereas the amount of nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead is negligible. There is significant (p<0.05) increase in red blood and white blood cells production at 1-4 weeks of extract administration, while parked cell volume and hemoglobin concentration increased at the second and third week of oral administration of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 for four weeks of the extract respectively. This research have therefore supported the folkloric claims by traditionalists and herbalists in application of the crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) in the management of anemia in Askira/Uba, Maiduguri and other Local Government areas in Borno State, Nigeria.
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