This paper describes the five development stages of the rope human parasite. Rope parasites have been discovered as a result of cleansing enemas. Parasiteadult stages live in human gastro-intestinal tract and are anaerobic. They moveinside the body by releasing gas bubbles utilizing jet propulsion. Ropeparasites look like a rope, and can be over a meter long. It takes tens ofyears for them to fully develop into mature species (fifth stage). The fourthstage looks similar, but the parasite is shorter and has softer slimier body. The third stage looks like branched jellyfish. The second stage is viscoussnot, or mucus with visible gas bubbles that act as suction cups. The firststage is slimier mucus with fewer bubbles, which can reside almost anywhere inthe body. Antihelminthic methods are also mentioned in the paper.
Related Content
Human schistosomiasis: Clinical perspective
The clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis pass by acute, sub acute and chronic stages that mirror the immune response to infection. The later includes in succession innate, TH1 and TH2 adaptive stages, with an ultimate establishment of concomitant immunity. Some patients may also develop lat...


Structural characterization and inhibition of the Plasmodium Atg8-Atg3 interaction
The autophagy-related proteins are thought to serve multiple functions in Plasmodium and are considered essential to parasite survival and development. We have studied two key interacting proteins, Atg8 and Atg3, of the autophagy pathway in P. falciparum. These proteins are vital for the formatio...
Beta-1,3-Glucan, Which Can Be Targeted by Drugs, Forms a Trabecular Scaffold in the Oocyst Walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria
The walls of infectious pathogens, which are essential for transmission, pathogenesis, and diagnosis, contain sugar polymers that are defining structural features, e.g., β-1,3-glucan and chitin in fungi, chitin in Entamoeba cysts, β-1,3-GalNAc in Giardia cysts, and peptidoglycans in bac...


Characterization and differential expression of cathepsin L3 alleles from Fasciola hepatica
Fasciola hepatica infections cause significant global problems in veterinary and human medicine, including causing huge losses in cattle and sheep production. F. hepatica host infection is a multistage process and flukes express papain-like cysteine proteases, termed cathepsins, which play pivota...
Quantification of the N-glycosylated Secretome by Super-SILAC During Breast Cancer Progression and in Human Blood Samples
Cells secrete a large number of proteins to communicate with their surroundings. Furthermore, plasma membrane proteins and intracellular proteins can be released into the extracellular space by regulated or non-regulated processes. Here, we profiled the supernatant of 11 cell lines that are repre...

A Bioinformatics Approach for Integrated Transcriptomic and Proteomic Comparative Analyses of Model and Non-sequenced Anopheline Vectors of Human Malaria Parasites
Malaria morbidity and mortality caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax extend well beyond the African continent, and although P. vivax causes between 80 and 300 million severe cases each year, vivax transmission remains poorly understood. Plasmodium parasites are transmitted by...
The Druggable Antimalarial Target PfDXR: Overproduction Strategies and Kinetic Characterization
Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PfDXR) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of isoprenoids in the malaria parasite, using a pathway that is absent in the human host. This enzyme is receiving attention as it has been validated as a promising drug target. However,...

Developmental Bias in Cleavage-Stage Mouse Blastomeres
The cleavage-stage mouse embryo is composed of superficially equivalent blastomeres that will generate both the embryonic inner cell mass (ICM) and the supportive trophectoderm (TE). However, it remains unsettled whether the contribution of each blastomere to these two lineages can be accounted f...
Dopamine Stimulates Propagation of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites in Human Fibroblast and Primary Neonatal Rat Astrocyte Cell Cultures
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite often found in the brain of humans. Research has shown a correlation between prevalence of antibody titers to T. gondii and psychological illness in humans. Recent studies indicate that individuals seropositive for T. gondii antibodies are m...

Human IGF1 extends lifespan and enhances resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi
The highly conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) pathway regulates metabolism, development, lifespan and immunity across a wide range of organisms. Previous studies have shown that human insulin ingested in the blood meal can activate mosquito IIS, resulting in attenu...