This study examines whether specific teacher instructional practices in early education are associated with children's engagement in prosocial behavior. Teachers’ verbal encouragement of prosocial behavior and empathy, emotional warmth, positive behavior management, vocabulary instruction, and encouragement of expressive language were explored in relation to children's classroom prosocial behavior. We also examined whether increased prosociability was evident in the classrooms of teachers who both encouraged prosocial behavior and empathy and demonstrated emotional warmth. We observed 124 first-grade classrooms that included 2,098 children. indicated that teachers’ verbal encouragement of prosocial behavior and empathy was most strongly associated with classroom prosocial behavior. There was also a significant association between encouragement of expressive language and prosocial behavior. Emotional warmth, positive behavior management, vocabulary instruction, and the joint effe.
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