Despite the abundance of bacterial species in soil, more than 99% of these species cannot be cultured by traditional techniques. In addition, the less than 1% of bacteria that can be cultured are not representative of the total phylogenetic diversity. Hence, identifying novel species and their new functions is still an important task for all microbiologists. Cultivating techniques have played an important role in identifying new species but are still low-throughput processes. This review discusses the issues surrounding cultivation, including achievements, limitations, challenges, and future directions.
Related Content
Effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bio-plastic production under submerged fermentation
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular reserve material stored by gram-negative bacteria under nutrient-limited condition. PHAs are utilized in biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) synthesis due to their similarity with conventional synthetic plastic. In the present study, the effect of ...


Growth media composition and heavy metal tolerance behaviour of bacteria characterized from the sub-surface soil of uranium rich ore bearing site of Domiasiat in Meghalaya
Enrichment based cultivation method was utilised to isolate uranium (U)-tolerant bacteria from the sub-surface soil of U-rich ore bearing site of Domiasiat in Meghalaya, India. Two isolates with distinct colony morphology and pigmentation were closely matched as Serratia marcescens PKRS1 and Pseu...
Cell surface properties and fatty acids composition of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia under the influence of hydrophobic compounds and surfactants
Surface properties of newly isolated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain 6 were tested. The bacteria were stored in two different ways to determine the influence of hydrocarbons and surfactants on surface and enzymatic characteristics of the isolated strain. The influence of surface active agents...


Microcultivation of anaerobic bacteria single cells entrapped in alginate microbeads
Alginate microbeads, produced by emulsion/internal gelation, were studied for the entrapment and microcultivation of microbial cells with biotechnological potential. An anaerobic consortium which was selected for its capacity to degrade complex carbohydrates, and a pure culture of cellulose degra...
Single-step ethanol production from lignocellulose using novel extremely thermophilic bacteria
Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol using thermophilic bacteria provides a promising solution for efficient lignocellulose conversion without the need for additional cellulolytic enzymes. Most studies on the thermophilic CBP concentrate on co-cultivation of the ...

Population dynamics in mixed cultures of Neochloris oleoabundans and native microalgae from water of a polluted river and isolation of a diatom consortium for the production of lipid rich biomass
The production of biodiesel utilizing microalgae has driven innovation worldwide, especially trying to overcome the current economic and technological limitations of the whole process. Within these efforts, the use of wastewater to cultivate oleaginous microalgae or the use of dual purpose microa...
Polyunsaturated fatty acid production by marine bacteria
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important in maintaining human health. Limitations associated with current sources of ω-3 fatty acids and ω-6 fatty acids, from animal and plant sources, have led to increased interest in microbial production. Marine bacteria may provide a suitable alternative, a...

The use of co-culturing in solid substrate cultivation and possible solutions to scientific challenges
This perspective systematically summarizes the use of solid substrate co-cultures in agriculture, food, plant, and industrial biotechnology applications. The summarization is organized by organism, i.e. fungus, bacteria, yeast and then co-cultivation of either two or three organisms. Generally, i...
Genomic sequencing-based detection of large deletions in Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain B-276
Bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus (Actinomycetes) have the ability to catabolize various organic compounds and are therefore considered potential genetic resources for applications such as bioremediation. We investigated a next-generation sequencing-based procedure to rapidly identify candidate f...

Cultivation of Shear Stress Sensitive Microorganisms in Disposable Bag Reactor Systems
Technical scale (≥5 l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear s...