The chemical pesticide, imidacloprid (IMI) has long-lasting effectiveness against Hemiptera. IMI is commonly used to control the brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugensStål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Some chemical pesticides, however, can induce the susceptibility of rice to BPH, which has indirectly led to the resurgence of BPH. The mechanism of the chemical induction of the susceptibility of rice to BPH was not previously understood. Here, a 44K Agilent Rice Expression Microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression that accompany IMI-induced rice susceptibility to BPH. The results showed that 225 genes were differentially expressed, of which 117 were upregulated, and 18 were downregulated. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were mainly classified into the 8 functional groups: oxidation reduction, regulation of cellular process, response to stress, electron carrier activity, metabolic process, transport, signal transducer, and organismal development. The genes encoding plant lipid transfer protein, lignin peroxidase, and flavonol-3-O-methyltransferenase may be important responses to the IMI-induced susceptibility of rice to BPH. The reliability of the microarray data was verified by performing quantitative real-time PCR and the data provide valuable information for further study of the molecular mechanism of IMI-induced susceptibility of rice.Insecticide imidacloprid application induced the susceptibility of rice to the brown planthopper and changes of gene expression levels of rice.imageMicroarray was used to identify changes in imidacloprid-induced rice gene expression. A total of 225 genes were differentially expressed following imidacloprid treatment. These differentially expressed genes were mainly classified into 8 functional groups..
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