We previously discovered that (2,4,4-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-methyl butyrate (cyclolavandulyl butyrate, CLB) is an attractant for the mealybug-parasitic wasp Anagyrus sawadai Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Anagyrini). This wasp is not likely to parasitize the Japanese mealybug, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under natural conditions. In this study, we showed that this ‘non-natural’ enemy wasp can parasitize P. kraunhiae in the presence of CLB in field experiments. Laboratory-reared mealybugs placed on persimmon trees with CLB-impregnated rubber septa were parasitized significantly more often by endoparasitic wasps than those on non-treatment trees (18.1–4.3 vs. –6.3%). Anagyrus sawadai accounted for 2% of the wasps that emerged from mealybugs placed on CLB-treated trees. Moreover, CLB attracted another minor parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Anagyrini), which also parasitized more P. kraunhiae in the presence of CLB. All wasps that emerged from the mealybugs on control trees were Anagyrus fujikona Tachikawa, a major parasitoid of P. kraunhiae around the test location. These results demonstrated that CLB can recruit an indigenous, but ‘non-natural’ enemy that does not typically attack P. kraunhiae under natural conditions, as well as a minor natural enemy, for biological control of this mealybug species.
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