The Armanni–Ebstein lesion is a histological change in the kidney consisting of sub-nuclear vacuolation of the proximal tubules. It has been most associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. The vacuoles have been reported to contain glycogen. More recent studies show them to contain fat. Recent papers have associated the Armanni–Ebstein lesion with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. We present 11 cases of alcoholic ketoacidosis where the Armanni–Ebstein lesion was identified. None had a history of diabetes mellitus and none showed any changes of diabetic nephropathy. All 11 cases had raised acetone levels (3–67 mg/1 mL (mean 17.9 mg/1 mL and median value of 16 mg/1 mL). In addition a case of isopropanol poisoning was found to have the Armanni–Ebstein lesion. Isopropanol is converted to acetone but is not associated with acidosis. These results indicate that the Armanni–Ebstein lesion is not specific to diabetes mellitus.
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