Methanolic extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus has been considered locally to have the same antimalarial activities as artemisinin derivatives. This work studied the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extracts of A. leiocarpus and its effect on oxidative stress and lipid profile in mice infected with Plasmodium bergheii. Mice used for this study were divided into five groups; four of the groups were infected with P. bergheii. The first group was not infected with the parasite. The second group was infected with parasite but not treated with antimalarial drugs (negative control). The third group was infected and treated with artesunat at 5 mg/kg body weight (positive control), while the fourth and fifth groups were infected and treated with 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight of extract of stem bark of A. leiocarpus, respectively. The rate of parasite clearance was higher in the group treated with 2 mg/kg body weight of extract of A. leiocarpus when compared with the groups treated with artesunat. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly higher (P < .5) in the serum of negative control as compared with other groups which have received treatment. MDA level was moderately higher in the liver homogenates of infected mice treated with artesunat than in other groups. There were significant increases (P < .5) in the levels of serum and liver superoxide dismutase of infected mice treated with 2 mg/kg body weight of A. leiocarpus when compared with other groups. Serum low density lipoprotein, total triglyceride, and total cholesterol were moderately higher in the group treated with artesunat than other groups, while high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was higher in the two groups treated with A. leiocarpus as compared with the group treated with artesunat. This study shows that the methanolic extract of A. leiocarpus has high antimalarial activities, high antioxidant property, and capable of boosting HDL level in malaria-infected organisms.
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