The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate concentration on a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) were studied. The MFC was operated in a continuous flow mode employing enriched hydrogen-producing mixed bacteria as the anodic inoculum and artificial sucrose wastewater as a substrate. The results showed that when the substrate concentration was high, this system exhibited rapid start-up and continuous and stable power output over a long period. HRT and substrate concentration had a great effect on the electricity-generation characteristics of the MFC. The optimum HRT was 8 h, and the maximum power density was produced using a sucrose concentration. Highlights: Hydrogen-producing mixed bacteria was first used for electricity generation. A continuous and stable power output was obtained from the two-chambered microbial fuel cell. Optimum hydraulic retention time and substrate concentration were available. In addition, the major metabolites produced by the mixed culture were observed.
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