This paper presents development and application of a simple and efficient frame finite element (FE) able to estimate the load-carrying capacity of timber beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) strips and near-surface mounted FRP bars. The developed element is able to model collapse due to timber crushing under compression, timber fracture under tension and FRP rupture and it is developed in the framework of a flexibility-based fibre element formulation. Furthermore, a novel method based on central difference method in conjunction with composite Simpson’s integration scheme along the element axis is developed to take account of shear-slip. Highlights: Development of an efficient formulation for nonlinear analysis of strengthened beams. Assessment of ultimate loading capacity for flexurally strengthened timber beams. Implicit and accurate modelling of bond-slip effect within frame elements. Investigating effect of bond-slip on the response of flexurally strengthened timber beams.
Related Content
Experimental and finite element analysis of flexural behavior of FRP-strengthened RC beams using cement-based adhesives
The strengthening and rehabilitation of structures are major issues worldwide. In most situations, strengthening is required when there is an increase in the applied load, human error in the initial construction, a legal requirement to comply with updated versions of existing codes, or as a resul...


Evaluation of debonding failure of reinforced concrete girders strengthened in flexure with FRP laminates using finite element modeling
The use of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials dates back to the early 194s when they were used in aerospace and naval applications. During the 197s and early 198s, FRP started being used in civil engineering applications for new construction, but more importantly for repair and strengthenin...
Investigation of ultimate strengths of concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with GFRP bars
The corrosion of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete bridge deck has been the cause of major structural deterioration and of high costs in repair and maintenance. Glass fibre-reinforced polymers (GFRP) bars provide a promising alternative reinforcement, which exhibit high durability in combi...


An approach for estimating the capacity of RC beams strengthened in shear with FRP reinforcements using artificial neural networks
An artificial neural network model is developed to predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams, retrofitted in shear by means of externally bonded wrapped and U-jacketed fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) in this study. However, unlike the existing design codes the model considers th...
Parametric and comparative study of spandrel beam effect on the punching shear strength of reinforced concrete flat plates
The safe and efficient construction of reinforced concrete flat plate systems requires an accurate, reliable and universally applicable procedure for the punching shear strength design. A nonlinear layered finite element method (LFEM) capable of analysing the punching shear strength of such syste...

An efficient cruciform element to model semirigid composite connections for frame analysis
This paper deals with a component-based approach to model internal and external semirigid composite connections for the global analysis of frames. The method is based on a cruciform finite sized elastic-plastic joint element that takes into consideration its deformation characteristics including ...
Entwicklung eines Hochleistungsverbundträgersystems für den Ingenieurholzbau
Anspruchsvolle, weitgespannte Ingenieurholzkonstruktionen werden seit über 100 Jahren überwiegend unter Verwendung von Brettschichtholz realisiert. Durch Weiterentwicklung dieses homogenisierten Holzwerkstoffproduktes zu einem hybriden Hochleistungsbauteil können dem natürlichen Roh- bzw. Bau...

Non linear behaviour of steel–concrete epoxy bonded composite beams
The bonding connection in steel–concrete composite beams is investigated in the case of static loading and normal strength concrete. Two 3-point bending tests performed on 4 meter span beams confirm that bonding could be very efficient allowing a large plastic strain without any shear failure i...
Interaction of buckling modes in castellated steel beams
Is highlighted. An efficient nonlinear 3D finite element model is reported. Web distortional buckling can cause a considerable decrease in the failure load. The failure loads predicted are compared with that of Australian Standards.

Application of improved hybrid bonded FRP technique to FRP debonding prevention
External bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is one of the most efficient techniques for retrofitting and strengthening concrete structures. However, the bond interface is the weakest link in such retrofitted or strengthened concrete members, resulting in premature FRP debonding. Therefore,...