Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is one of key components of the translation initiation system in living cells. In bacteria IF2 is a multidomain monomeric protein, while in eukaryotic and archaean cells e/aIF2 is heterotrimer (αβγ). Data, including our own, on eukaryotic type translation initiation factor 2 (e/aIF2) structure and functioning are presented. There are also new data on initiation factors eIF5 and eIF2B that directly interact with eIF2 and control its participation in nucleotide exchange.
Related Content
EIF4B Promotes eIF4G{-}eIF4A Assembly
Translation initiation factor eIF4F (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F), composed of eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A, binds to the m7G cap structure of mRNA and stimulates recruitment of the 43S preinitiation complex and subsequent scanning to the initiation codon. The HEAT domain of eIF4G stabilizes the a...


In vitro activity of human translation initiation factor eIF4B is not affected by phosphomimetic amino acid substitutions S422D and S422E
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B is necessary for ribosomal scanning through structured mRNA leaders. In higher eukaryotes, eIF4B serves as a downstream effector of several signaling pathways. In response to mitogenic stimuli, eIF4B undergoes multiple phosphorylations which are thou...
Autophosphorylation of Heme-regulated Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinase, HRI, and the Role of the Modification in Catalysis
Heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (HRI), functions in response to heme shortage in reticulocytes and aids in the maintenance of a heme:globin ratio of 1:Under normal conditions, heme binds to HRI and blocks its function. However, during heme shortage, heme dissociate...


Analysis of interaction partners for eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A M-domain by functional proteomics
The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), besides to its canonical role in protein synthesis, is also involved in several other cellular processes, depending on changes in cellular location, cell type, concentration of ligands, substrates or cofactors. Therefore eEF1A is a moonligh...
ORF45/RSK Axis Facilitates Protein Translation
Open reading frame 45 (ORF45) of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes sustained activation of p9 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which is crucial for KSHV lytic replication, but the exact functional roles remain to be determined. To characterize the biological consequence of persistent ...

EIF2B Interdomain Interactions
In eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) required for reactivation of the G protein eIF2 between rounds of protein synthesis initiation. eIF2B is unusually complex with five subunits (α–ϵ) necessary for GEF activity and its control by phospho...
5'-End Specificity of Yeast eIF4F
During eukaryotic translation initiation, the 43 S ribosomal pre-initiation complex is recruited to the 5′-end of an mRNA through its interaction with the 7-methylguanosine cap, and it subsequently scans along the mRNA to locate the start codon. Both mRNA recruitment and scanning require the re...

G5G8 Opposes Steatosis and Loss of Glycemic Control
ABCG5 and ABCG8 form a complex (G5G8) that opposes the absorption of plant sterols but is also expressed in liver where it promotes the excretion of cholesterol into bile. Hepatic G5G8 is transcriptionally regulated by a number of factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and no...
Actin Mutant with Defects in the Ala-108-Pro-112 Loop
Actin plays fundamental roles in a variety of cell functions in eukaryotic cells. The polymerization-depolymerization cycle, between monomeric G-actin and fibrous F-actin, drives essential cell processes. Recently, we proposed the atomic model for the F-actin structure and found that actin was in...

The major mRNP protein YB-1: Structural and association properties in solution
YB-1 is a major mRNP protein participating in the regulation of transcription and translation of a wide range of eukaryotic genes in many organisms probably due to its influence on mRNA packing into mRNPs. While the functional properties of YB-1 are extensively studied, little is known about its ...