Previous studies have shown abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) in Huntington’s disease (HD). The aim of the present investigation was to compare quantitatively analyzed EEGs of HD patients and controls by means of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Further aims were to delineate the sensitivity and utility of EEG LORETA in the progression of HD, and to correlate parameters of cognitive and motor impairment with neurophysiological variables. In 55 HD patients and 55 controls a 3-min vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG) was recorded during midmorning hours. Power spectra and intracortical tomography were computed by LORETA in seven frequency bands and compared between groups. Spearman rank correlations were based on V-EEG and psychometric data. Statistical overall analysis by means of the omnibus significance test demonstrated significant (p < .1) differences between HD patients and controls. LORETA theta, alpha and beta power were decreased from early to late stages of the disease. Only advanced disease stages showed a significant increase in delta power, mainly in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Correlation analyses revealed that a decrease of alpha and theta power correlated significantly with increasing cognitive and motor decline. LORETA proved to be a sensitive instrument for detecting progressive electrophysiological changes in HD. Reduced alpha power seems to be a trait marker of HD, whereas increased prefrontal delta power seems to reflect worsening of the disease. Motor function and cognitive function deteriorate together with a decrease in alpha and theta power. This data set, so far the largest in HD research, helps to elucidate remaining uncertainties about electrophysiological abnormalities in HD.
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