Business

Regional disparity of embedded carbon footprint and its sources in China: a consumption perspective
Carbon emission reduction could be achieved through extensive cooperation between relevant groups such as businesses, governments and consumers. Generally, carbon emissions stem from consumer behaviour. To tackle the increasingly serious energy crisis and climate change in China, it is thus vital to control carbon emissions generated by the country's urban consumers. From a consumption perspect...


Phantom Stock Executive Compensation Plans
Unlike the popular market-value stock options, stock awards and stock appreciation plans, phantom stock plans do not involve ownership of publicly-traded stock, although market-based stock may be used as a measurement of the phantom stock plan. Another popular method for valuing phantom stock plans is book value (i.e. assets minus liabilities). It is important to note that phantom stock plans c...
Reputation und Unternehmenserfolg
Vor ca. 30 Jahren sind erste wissenschaftliche Beiträge veröffentlicht worden, die sich dem Konstrukt der Unternehmensreputation aus Sicht der Management-Wissenschaften widmen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt zunächst Konzeptualisierungen und Operationalisierungen dieses immateriellen Vermögensgegenstands vor und diskutiert diese kritisch. Daran anschließend werden die zumeist empirischen S...


Are There Gender Differences When Professional Accountants Evaluate Moral Intensity for Earnings Management?
Gender differences in ethical evaluations may vary across types of behaviors. This controlled experiment explores gender differences in ethical evaluations, moral judgment, moral intentions, and moral intensity evaluations by surveying a group of professional accountants to elicit their views on a common earnings management technique. We find that there are no significant differences between ma...
Societal systems – complex or worse?
The basic observation that we explore in this paper is simple but, we argue, rich in consequences: societal systems combine two qualities that are commonly referred to as complexity and complicatedness. We address the problem that societal systems remain recalcitrant despite the development of powerful approaches for dealing with both of these qualities. The root of this problem we identify to ...


The dark side of solidarity: social norms and social relations in the aftermath of strikes
This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a collective action problem such as a strike. A ‘solidarity norm’ prescribes that workers shoul...
The perceived probability of job loss and future labour market outcomes
Longitudinal survey data are used to test the degree to which worker expectations of future job loss are correlated with changes in labour market status. Three major findings are reported. First, perceived probabilities of expected job loss are only weakly related to both exogenous job separations and subsequent transitions to unemployment and inactivity. Second, while fears of job loss tend to...

The economic development incentives game: an imperfect information, heterogeneous communities approach
The economic development incentives game developed in this paper extends the basic incentives game framework utilized in previous research by: (1) assuming heterogeneous communities with a priori unknown (to the communities or the firm) benefits and costs associated with the location, providing a mechanism for communities to discover their true benefits and costs, and allowing firms, as well as...
Social finance and crowdfunding for social enterprises: a public–private case study providing legitimacy and leverage
The authors work closely with academia and governmental organizations in the UK and abroad to develop new, innovative schemes for social impact investing. Such schemes include considerations for public–private collaborations, legislative actions, and especially in this case, for the leveraged use of public and philanthropic funds in Crowdfunding (CF). The relatively new phenomenon of CF can n...

The virtual tourist gaze in Greece, 1897–1905
While travelling in Greece in 1892, a British tourist wryly commented on a group of tourists arriving in Athens who were travelling with nothing but a Baedeker guidebook and a pair of opera glasses. By 1892 tourist images were beginning to determine the benchmark for authentic vistas of Greece. This argument analyses an early technology for generating three dimensional images of Greece and the ...
Measuring voting power in games with correlated votes using Bahadur’s parametrisation
We introduce a method of measuring voting power in simple voting games with correlated votes using the Bahadur parameterisation. With a method for measuring voting power with correlated votes, we can address a question of practical importance. Given that most of the applied power analysis is carried out with either the Penrose–Banzhaf or the Shapley–Shubik measures of power, what happens wh...

Ist die Energiewende sozial gerecht?
Die Energiewende umfasst neben dem Ausstieg aus der Atomenergie unter anderem auch den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien, die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz und die Senkung des Treibhausgasausstoßes. Dabei wird viel Geld bewegt und es stellt sich immer dringender die Frage nach der sozialen Gerechtigkeit, wenn bereits heute mehr als 17% der privaten Haushalte durch Energiekosten stark belastet sin...
Dauerkritik an der Europäischen zentralbank
Die Beschlüsse der Europäischen Zentralbank vom 5. Juni 2014 sind zum Teil heftig kritisiert worden. Damit setzt sich die überwiegend negative Bewertung an der Politik der Europäischen Zentralbank fort, die seit langem zu beobachten ist, aber im Widerspruch zur realen Entwicklung steht. Sie lässt sich nur durch das Festhalten an einer Theorie erklären, die falsch angewendet wird. Die nega...
Investitionsschutzabkommen: mehr Rechtssicherheit oder verzicht auf Souveränität?
Einer der wesentlichen Streitpunkte zwischen den USA und der EU bei der Aushandlung des Transatlantischen Freihandelsabkommens sind die Regelungen zum Investitionsschutz. Dies soll eigentlich Investoren davor schützen, durch veränderte rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen Verluste zu erleiden. Es zielt aber auf die Wirtschaftsverfassung von Nationalstaaten, denn die Profi tabilität der Investitionen...
Deutsche Leistungsbilanzüberschüsse in der Kritik
Die deutschen Leistungsbilanzüberschüsse stehen international in der Kritik. Welche Entwicklungen liegen diesen Überschüssen im Einzelnen zugrunde? Die Autoren untersuchen vor allem vier Fragen: Ist die deutsche Wettbewerbsfähigkeit durch den Euro gestiegen? Sind die Lohnstückkosten gesunken? Ist die Binnennachfrage ausreichend gewesen? Sind die deutschen Leistungsbilanzüberschüsse nach...