Biology

DNA Modifications: Function and Applications in Normal and Disease States
Epigenetics refers to a variety of processes that have heritable effects on gene expression programs without changes in DNA sequence. Key players in epigenetic control are chemical modifications to DNA, histone, and non-histone chromosomal proteins, which establish a complex regulatory network that controls genome function. Methylation of DNA at the fifth position of cytosine in CpG dinucleotid...


Toxicological effects of metal-EDTA/NTA complex formation in a synthetic medium on the macroalga Gracilaria domingensis
Algae are appropriate target organisms both for the development of toxicological assays and as bioindicators of marine degradation by inorganic and organic compounds. In recent years, the compounds ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic (NTA) acids have been released from household and industrial processes and have been considered to be the major emerging contaminants in aquatic...
Bioassay-guided fractionation approach for determination of protein precursors of proteolytic bioactive metabolites from macroalgae
In the last decades, an upsurge in the occurrence of chronic diseases caused by hypertension and oxidative stress has been observed. The objective of this research was to isolate and characterize groups of antioxidant and anti-hypertensive natural bioactive peptides originating from hydrolyzed proteins of the red seaweeds Solieria chordalis and Palmaria palmata, the green seaweed Ulva lactuca a...


Potential anti-angiogenic, antiproliferative, antioxidant, and anticoagulant activity of anionic polysaccharides, fucans, extracted from brown algae Lobophora variegata
This study analyzed the action of sulfated polysaccharides, fucans, from the brown alga Lobophora variegata on angiogenesis (CAM assays), antioxidant activity, and homeostasis in vitro. Groups of fucans, obtained after acetone fractionation in several (0.3–1.5 v) concentrations, were obtained. This sulfated heterofucan was eluted with 0.8 v of acetone named fraction rich in fucans (FRF). Th...
Chemical composition and nutritional properties of freshwater and marine microalgal biomass cultured in photobioreactors
Proximate, amino acid and elemental composition, total phenolic content (TPC), and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of microalgal biomass were determined. Microalgae contained low to moderate ash (5–17 %), moderate to high carbohydrate (18–46 %), crude protein (18–46 %), high crude lipid (12–48 %), and energy (19–27 MJ kg−1). Characteristic of microalgae, non-essential am...


Hepatoprotective effect of the fucoidan from the brown seaweed Turbinaria tricostata
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in initiating and promoting several hepatic diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro hepatoprotective effect and antioxidative activity of the fucoidan extract from Turbinaria tricostata (FTt) from the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). We compared two different mild condition extraction techniques: water vs. salt extraction. Th...
Antenna size reduction as a strategy to increase biomass productivity: a great potential not yet realized
A major limitation in achieving high photosynthetic efficiency in microalgae mass cultures is the fact that the intensity of direct sunlight greatly exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of the cells. Due to the high pigment content of algal cells, the light absorption rate surpasses the much slower conversion rate to biochemical energy. The excess of light energy is predominantly dissipated as h...

Drosophila C-terminal Src kinase regulates growth via the hippo signaling pathway
The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in regulating tissue size by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Aberrant Hippo pathway function is often detected in human cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. The Drosophila C-terminal Src kinase (d-Csk) is a genetic modifier of warts (wts), a tumor-suppressor gene in the Hippo pathway, and interacts with the Src oncogene. Redu...
Zn2+-stimulation of sperm capacitation and of the acrosome reaction is mediated by EGFR activation
Extracellular zinc regulates cell proliferation via the MAP1 kinase pathway in several cell types, and has been shown to act as a signaling molecule. The testis contains a relatively high concentration of Zn2+, required in both the early and late stages of spermatogenesis. Despite the clinical significance of this ion, its role in mature sperm cells is poorly understood. In this study, we chara...

Tunicamycin-induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-like structures in cultured human myeloid cell lines
The mechanism of neutrophil extracellular trap cell death (NETosis), a regulated cell death pathway relevant to infection, autoimmunity and sepsis, is not completely known. The reason for this, at least in part, is the lack of an in vitro system that recapitulates the NETosis pathway using established human cell lines. We show that exposure of a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 to t...
HGF expression induced by HIF-1α promote the proliferation and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in postnatal neovascularization. However, the interaction of these two pathways is not fully understood. The present study utilized CoCl2 treated- endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (EPCs exposure to CoCl2 are under mimic hypoxia) to examine the expressions of HIF-1α and HGF and futher to assess whe...

Ca2+ and EGF induce the differentiation of human embryo mesenchymal stem cells into epithelial-like cells
The mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) occurs in organ development and anti-tumorigenesis. We have investigated the effects of calcium (Ca2+) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) differentiation into epithelial-like cells. hMSCs lost their biological characteristics after EGF transfection, and MET was achieved by adding 0.4 mmol Ca2+. Western blotti...
Control of CXCR2 activity through its ubiquitination on K327 residue
The interleukin-8 chemokine (IL-8) G-protein coupled receptor CXCR2 governs pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic responses in leukocytes and endothelial cells. At a molecular standpoint, CXCR2 is widely reported to operate through calcium flux, phosphoinoisitide 3 kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). While CXCR2 trafficking is suspected to be intertwined with its signaling,...
Diet of wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in a protected area of Argentina: the importance of baiting
The wild boar is an invasive mammal in Argentina that generates habitat alteration, predation, and competition that threaten several native species due to its flexible and broad diet and its rooting behavior. We evaluated the diet of wild boar in El Palmar National Park (EPNP), assessing its composition, seasonality, and importance of baiting. Vegetable matter represented the major component of...
The economics of scent marking with urine and feces in goitered gazelle ( Gazella subgutturosa )
Apart from the purely physiological excretion function, many mammals use their own urine and feces as reliable, odoriferous signals to indicate territorial occupancy. Marking is especially important for many antelopes, as territoriality is linked to reproductive success in these species. Scent marking with excrement, though, imposes physiological constraints in the amounts of urine and feces th...