Biology

Edge effect and influence of economic growth on Eurasian lynx mortality in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland
Eurasian lynx is one of most widely distributed felid species. However, populations in central Europe are strongly fragmented and limited to forest areas, which may influence their sustainability and gene flow. We studied the edge effect on mortality of a highly isolated population of Eurasian lynx in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (NE Poland) during the 20-year period (1991–2011) of high e...


Fibulin-3 negatively regulates ALDH1 via c-MET suppression and increases γ-radiation -induced sensitivity in some pancreatic cancer cell lines
Fibulin-3(FBLN-3) has been postulated to be either a tumor suppressor or promotor depending on the cell type, and hypermethylation of the FBLN-3 promoter is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. We report that the promotor region of the FBLN-3 was significantly methylated(>95%) in some pancreatic cancer cell lines and thus FBLN-3 was poorly expressed in pancreatic cance...
Megakaryocytes are essential for HSC quiescence through the production of Thrombopoietin
Tissue homeostasis demands regulatory feedback, suggesting that hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity is controlled in part by HSC progeny. Yet, cell extrinsic HSC regulation has been well characterized only in niche cells of non-hematopoietic origin. Here we identify feedback regulation of HSCs by megakaryocytes (Mks), which are mature hematopoietic cells, through production of thrombopoietin...


Fundamental for life: mTOR orchestrates developing biological systems
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (historically known as mammalian target of rapamycin) functions as a master regulator of cell growth control. Although the regulation of protein translation is probably the best understood function of mTOR, it is clear that mTOR governs many additional processes within the cell that together orchestrates organism growth and development. Our ‘growing’ k...
Enhancing Rice Salt Stress Tolerance by Priming with Validamycin A
A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress. Application of validamycin A, a potent inhibitor of trehalase as seed soaking prior to sowing in saline soil with salinity level (EC 10.06 dS m-1) to Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars (cv.) salt sensitive Sakha 103 and salt tolerance Agami M5 was investigated. Salinity stress...


Morphological and Molecular Profiling of Spirogyra from Northeastern and Northern Thailand Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers
Green algae, Spirogyra (Chlorophyta), are found in a wide range of habitats including small stagnant water bodies, rivers, and streams. Species identification of Spirogyra based on morphological characteristics has proven to be a difficult process. An accurate identification method is required to evaluate genetic variations. This study is aimed at investigating the molecular profiling of 19 sam...
Mathematical study for the mechanism of vascular and spot patterns by auxin and pin dynamics in plant development
Inhomogeneous distribution of auxin is essential in various differentiation processes of plant development. Auxin transfer between cells by efflux carrier protein called PINFORMED (PIN) has been considered to be responsible for inhomogeneous distribution of auxin. Two major types of auxin distribution patterns are “spot” patterns and “passage” patterns, which are responsible for determi...

Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions
Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but...
The role of TGF-ß signaling and apoptosis in innate and adaptive immunity in zebrafish: a systems biology approach
The immune system is a key biological system present in vertebrates. Exposure to pathogens elicits various defensive immune mechanisms that protect the host from potential threats and harmful substances derived from pathogens such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The complex immune system of humans and many other vertebrates can be divided into two major categories: the innate and the adapt...

Computational modelling and analysis of the molecular network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis
Bacterial spores are important contaminants in food, and the spore forming bacteria are often implicated in food safety and food quality considerations. Spore formation is a complex developmental process involving the expression of more than 500 genes over the course of 6 to 8?hrs. The process culminates in the formation of resting cells capable of resisting environmental extremes and remaining...
Homogenization of one-dimensional oscillatory systems with spatially modulated parameters
Oscillations of one-dimensional systems with spatially modulated parameters, in particular, strings with a varying cross section, are investigated. The method of direct separation of the motions is used, adapted to investigate systems in which separation of the variables is carried out in the spatial coordinate, rather than in time. It is established that modulation of the cross section of the ...

A Phase IB Trial of the Oral MEK Inhibitor Trametinib (GSK1120212) in Combination With Everolimus in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors
As there is extensive interaction between the PI3K/mTOR and MAPK pathways, concurrent inhibition of both pathways may improve clinical response in cancer patients. This phase 1b trial of trametinib, a MEK 1/2 inhibitor in the MAPK pathway, plus everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor in the PI3K/mTOR pathway, did not find a recommended regimen because of issues with tolerability of the combination.
Prioritising Targets for Precision Cancer Medicine
There is a dramatic development of personalized medicine trials where patients are being treated according to genomic alterations. Nevertheless, due to lack of target classification, these trials are difficult to interpret, and patients could sometimes be treated with drugs that are unlikely to work. There is a need to better classify actionable genomic alterations, in order to better interpret...
High-dose sequential chemotherapy (HDS) versus PEB chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with poor prognosis germ cell tumors: mature results of an Italian randomized phase II study
An additional negative chapter of high-dose chemotherapy as early intensification for poor risk germ cell tumors. Long-term results of an Italian multicentric randomized phase II trial are presented.
Simulation tools for particle-based reaction-diffusion dynamics in continuous space
Particle-based reaction-diffusion algorithms facilitate the modeling of the diffusional motion of individual molecules and the reactions between them in cellular environments. A physically realistic model, depending on the system at hand and the questions asked, would require different levels of modeling detail such as particle diffusion, geometrical confinement, particle volume exclusion or pa...