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Microbial biotransformation as a tool for drug development based on natural products from mevalonic acid pathway: A review
Natural products are structurally and biologically interesting metabolites, but they have been isolated in minute amounts. The syntheses of such natural products help in obtaining them in bulk amounts. The recognition of microbial biotransformation as important manufacturing tool has increased in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, microbial transformation is increasing sig...


Effects of gender and length of land tenure on timber supply in Finland
This study investigated timber supply from Finnish non-industrial private forests (NIPF) using the consistent Tobit model and nationwide micropanel survey data on timber sales of 1299 forest owners during 2004–2008. The effects of forest owners’ gender and length of land tenure on timber supply were studied in particular. Women sold one cubic meter per hectare and per year (about 30%) less ...
Public support for forestry from EU funds – Cases of Czech Republic and Slovak Republic
Rural development policy in the European Union (EU) has been implemented through different instruments. This paper is focused on support for the forestry sector from the EU funds in the years 2004–2006 in two EU Member States – Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). The comparison of support for forestry activities from the EU funds, delivered through the implementation of National Operatio...


Estimating the benefits of recreation-oriented management in state-owned commercial forests in Finland: A choice experiment
As forestlands provide a variety of environmental services, the management of forest resources is a matter of public concern. In the present case of state-owned commercial forests in Finland, legislation requires specific management practices to enhance recreational benefits free of charge to the public. This choice experiment considers Finnish people's valuation of the recreation-oriented mana...
A false sense of security: Safety behaviors erode objective speech performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder
In the current study, 55 participants with a diagnosis of generalized SAD, 23 participants with a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder other than SAD with no comorbid SAD, and 50 healthy controls completed a speech task as well as self-reported measures of safety behavior use. Speeches were videotaped and coded for global and specific indicators of performance by two raters who were blind to partic...


Old” theories, “New” technologies: Understanding knowledge sharing and learning in Brazilian software development companies
New technologies such as social networks, wikis, blogs and other social software enable collaborative work and are important facilitators of the learning process. They provide a simple mechanism for people to communicate and collaborate and thus support the creation of knowledge. In software-development companies they are used to creating an environment in which communication and collaboration ...
Keratins extracted from Merino wool and Brown Alpaca fibres: Thermal, mechanical and biological properties of PLLA based biocomposites
Keratins extracted from Merino wool (KM) and Brown Alpaca fibres (KA) by sulphitolysis and commercial hydrolyzed keratins (KH) were used as fillers in poly(l-lactic) acid based biocomposites processed by solvent casting in chloroform. Different contents (1wt.% and 5wt.%) of keratins were considered and the morphological, thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological behaviours of the developed P...

Preparation and antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan with iodine
Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer with active groups such as –NH2 which can be functionalized to introduce new positively charged N-atoms and protonated amino group for better use. In this study, to improve the stability of iodine, a novel complex (CTS–CTA–I2) was prepared by mixing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CTS–CTA) with iodine in ethanol solution. T...
Counterfactual reasoning as a key for explaining adaptive behavior in a changing environment
It is crucial for animals to detect changes in their surrounding environment, and reinforcement learning is one of the well-known processes to explain the change detection behavior. However, reinforcement learning itself cannot fully explain rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategy in response to abrupt environment changes. A previous model employed reinforcement learning and counterfact...

From object-action to property-action: Learning causally dominant properties through cumulative explorative interactions
Emerging studies from neuroscience in relation to organization of sematic memory in the brain provide converging evidence suggesting that conceptual knowledge is organized in a distributed fashion in “property specific” cortical networks that directly support perception and action (and were active during learning). Though learning ‘object-action’ affordances and using such knowledge for...
Alleviating the curse of dimensionality – A psychologically-inspired approach
Various combinations of perceptual features are relevant for learning and action-selection. However, the storage of all possible feature combinations presents computationally impractical, and psychologically implausible, memory requirements in non-trivial environments due to a state-space explosion. Some psychological models suggest that feature combinations, or chunks, should be generated at a...

Maternal-child adrenocortical attunement in early childhood: Continuity and change
This study evaluated continuity and change in maternal-child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis attunement in early childhood. Participants were drawn from a prospective study of 1,292 mother–child dyads, which were racially diverse, predominantly low-income, and non-urban. Child focused stress tasks designed to elicit anger, fear, and frustration were administered during early infancy, late...
The effect of the starting powders particle size on the electrical properties of sintered Co doped ZnO varistors
Pure and Co doped zinc oxide nanopowders have been synthesized by sol–gel route. The obtained powders, after calcination in air at 550, 650, 750 and 850 °C, were consolidated and sintered using microwaves. The effect of sintering temperature on the density and electrical properties was investigated. The best characteristics are obtained using a sintering temperature equal to 1,075 °C. The...
A Study of the Time Lags of the Indian Ocean Dipole and Rainfall Over Thailand by Using the Cross Wavelet Analysis
The aim of this research was to study the time lags of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and monthly mean rainfall over Thailand by using the Cross Wavelet Analysis. Historical data of monthly mean rainfall during the period 1979–2008 in a total of 80 locations spread throughout Thailand are used in this study. This data was obtained from the archives of the Meteorological Department. The regions...
Energy loss straggling data of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O, and 12C heavy ions in thin polymeric Formvar foil over a range of energies 0.1–0.6MeV/u by time-of-flight spectrometry
The energy-loss straggling of 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O and 12C partially stripped heavy ions has been determined in Formvar polymeric thin foil over a continuous range of energies 0.1–0.6MeV/u, by using a powerful method based on the combination of Heavy Ion-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HI-ERDA) technique and Time of Flight (ToF) spectrometer. The obtained energy loss straggling value...