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Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Immigration Policy Making in the United States
This article argues that immigration policy formation in the United States after 1950 can only be understood in the context of the increasing integration of world markets. Increasing trade openness has exposed firms that rely on immigrant labor to foreign competition and increased the likelihood that these firms fail. Increasing openness by other states to foreign direct investment (FDI) allowe...


Investigation of the Kinetics of a Surface Photocatalytic Reaction in Two Dimensions with Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering
Heterogeneous catalysis is a surface phenomenon. Yet, though the catalysis itself takes place on surfaces, the reactants and products rapidly take the form of another physical state, as either a liquid or a gas. Catalytic reactions within a self-assembled monolayer are confined within two dimensions, as the molecules involved do not leave the surface. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is an i...
Enhancing Catalytic Efficiency of Hollow Palladium Nanoparticles by Photothermal Heating of Gold Nanoparticles Added to the Cavity: Palladium–Gold Nanorattles
Hollow nanocatalysts, such as palladium nanoshells, have high catalytic efficiency. Gold nanospheres, which generate photothermal heat when photoexcited, have been synthesized inside palladium nanoshells to form palladium–gold nanorattles (PdAuNRTs). The efficiency of the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by borohydride can be enhanced upon optical excitation of the gold nanospheres when u...


To Concede or to Resist? The Restraining Effect of Military Alliances
Creating institutions that effectively manage interstate conflict is a priority for policy-makers. In this article we demonstrate that military allies are well positioned to influence the crisis-bargaining behavior of both challengers and targets in ways that often lead to peace. Through a three-player game-theoretic model, we demonstrate that a target's alliances not only have an effect on the...
Combined Operando UV/Vis/IR Spectroscopy Reveals the Role of Methoxy and Aromatic Species during the Methanol-to-Olefins Reaction over H-SAPO-34
The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process over H-SAPO-34 is investigated by using an operando approach combining UV/Vis and IR spectroscopies with on-line mass spectrometry. Methanol, methoxy, and protonated dimethyl ether are the major species during the induction period, whereas polyalkylated benzenes and polyaromatic species are encountered in the active stage of the MTO process. The accessibili...


Explaining the Transnational Design of International Organizations
Past decades have witnessed a shift in international cooperation toward growing involvement of transnational actors (TNAs), such as nongovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, and philanthropic foundations. This article offers a comprehensive theoretical and empirical account of TNA access to IOs. The analysis builds on a novel data set, covering formal TNA access to 298 organiza...
The Effect of Education on Criminal Convictions and Incarceration: Causal Evidence from Micro-data
This paper studies the causal effect of educational attainment on conviction and incarceration using Sweden's compulsory schooling reform as an instrument for years of schooling and a 70 percent sample from Sweden's Multigenerational Register matched with more than 30 years of administrative crime records. We find a significant negative effect of schooling on male convictions and incarceration;...

The Effect of Local Area Crime on Mental Health
This paper analyses the effect of local crime rates on residents’ mental health. Using longitudinal information on individuals’ mental well-being, we address the problem of sorting and endogenous moving behaviour. We find that crime causes considerable mental distress for residents, primarily driven by property crime. Effects are stronger for females, and mainly related to depression and an...
Lame Ducks And The Media
Do media organisations turn on unpopular governments and, if so, why? We model a demandside and supply-side explanation and derive testable implications that can be used to differentiate between them. We take these predictions to the data by examining whether British newspapers give more coverage to investigations into government MPs when the government is behind in the polls. Instrumenting for...

Ode To The Sea: Workplace Organizations And Norms Of Cooperation
The functioning and well-being of any society and organization critically hinges on norms of cooperation that regulate social activities. Empirical evidence on how such norms emerge and in which environments they thrive remains a clear void in the literature. To provide an initial set of insights, we overlay a set of field experiments in a natural setting. Our approach is to compare behaviour i...
Services Reform and Manufacturing Performance: Evidence from India
Conventional explanations for the post-1991 growth of India's manufacturing sector focus on goods trade liberalization and industrial de-licensing. We demonstrate the powerful contribution of a neglected factor: India's policy reforms in services. The link between these reforms and the productivity of manufacturing firms is examined using panel data for about 4,000 Indian firms for the period 1...

Highway to Success: The Impact of the Golden Quadrilateral Project for the Location and Performance of Indian Manufacturing
We investigate the impact of transportation infrastructure on the organisation and efficiency of manufacturing activity. The Golden Quadrangle (GQ) project upgraded a central highway network in India. Manufacturing activity grew disproportionately along the network. These findings hold in straight-line IV frameworks and are not present on a second highway that was planned to be upgraded at the ...
Poverty and Aspirations Failure
We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and .aspirations failure., de.ned as the failure to aspire to one.s own potential. In our framework, rich and the poor persons share the same preferences and same behavioural bias in setting aspirations. We show that poverty can exacerbate the effects of this behavioural bias leading to aspirations failure and hence, a behavi...
The Impact of Vocational Training for the Unemployed: Experimental Evidence from Turkey
We use a randomized experiment to evaluate Turkey's vocational training programs for the unemployed. A detailed follow-up survey of a large sample with low attrition enables precise estimation of treatment impacts and their heterogeneity. The average impact of training on employment is positive, but close to zero and statistically insignificant, which is much lower than program officials and ap...
Employment Protection Legislation, Capital Investment and Access to Credit: Evidence from Italy
This paper estimates the causal impact of dismissal costs on capital deepening and productivity exploiting a reform that introduced unjust-dismissal costs in Italy for firms below 15 employees, leaving firing costs unchanged for larger firms. We show that the increase in firing costs induces an increase in the capital-labour ratio and a decline in total factor productivity in small firms relati...