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Financial Dilemmas Associated with the Afforestation of Low-Productivity Farmland in Poland
In Poland, 82% of forests are State-owned, and only 17% of forests constitute private property. Each year, forests are converted to other land-use types, mainly for road construction. The afforestation rate on privately-owned low-productivity land is decreasing steadily. The owners and perpetual usufructuaries of this kind of land are eligible to government subsidies to cover establishment expe...


Changes in Income Structure in Frontier Villages and Implications for REDD+ Benefit Sharing
A methodological characteristic of the REDD+ scheme is that it attempts to reduce deforestation by rewarding communities that change problematic land use practices. This has led to discussions on benefit sharing. This article focuses on incentives for alternative land use practices among village members living in frontier areas, especially in relation to support for sustainable land use and peo...
Expansion of Protected Areas under Climate Change: An Example of Mountainous Tree Species in Taiwan
Tree species in mountainous areas are expected to shift their distribution upward in elevation in response to climate change, calling for a potential redesign of existing protected areas. This study aims to predict whether or not the distributions of two high-mountain tree species, Abies (Abies kawakamii) and Tsuga (Tsuga chinensis var. formosana), will significantly shift upward due to tempera...


Conifer Recruitment in Trembling Aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx.) Stands along an East-West Gradient in the Boreal Mixedwoods of Canada
Ongoing climate change is likely to result in shifts in successional dynamics in boreal mixedwood stands. Using data from provincial forest inventory databases, we examined the occurrence and abundance of the regeneration of various coniferous species (white spruce, black spruce and balsam fir) along an east-west Canadian gradient in aspen-dominated stands. The interpretation of the results was...
Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes
The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs) (PRP 1—fenced enclosure an...


The blind scientists and the elephant of swallowing: A review of instrumental perspectives on swallowing physiology
Swallowing is a complex biomechanical process. In this review, several different techniques for measuring swallowing physiology are described, and limitations of each instrumental perspective are discussed. The techniques discussed include videofluoroscopy, endoscopy, 3D dynamic CT imaging, ultrasound, electromagnetic articulography, electromyography, lingual and pharyngeal manometry, electropa...
Basking Activity is Modulated by Health State but is Constrained by Conspicuousness to Predators in Male Spanish Terrapins
Aerial basking may have several benefits for freshwater turtles in addition to thermoregulation such as removing parasites from the skin, which would improve health state. However, basking outside of water may be risky because it may expose freshwater turtles to terrestrial predators. Here, we monitored the basking activity of male Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa) in a wild population of th...

Taste differentiation and hierarchization within popular culture: The case of salsa music
This article investigates taste preferences for one popular music genre: salsa. It is based on in-depth interviews with 40 Latin American immigrants in Switzerland and the Netherlands. Eight recorded pieces of salsa that represent different salsa styles were played and respondents’ spontaneous appreciations were noted. The findings show a clear and fairly strong connection between taste prefe...
Watching “bad” television: Ironic consumption, camp, and guilty pleasures
This research examines how people watch “bad” television–television programs that the viewers themselves label as “trash,” “stupid,” and “awful.” Such viewers experience a normative contradiction; while they have created or embraced a symbolic boundary between “good” and “bad” television, they find themselves transgressing that boundary by consuming and, in some cases,...

A reliability assessment method based on an accelerated testing under thermal cycling environment
This article proposes a reliability assessment method based on an accelerated testing under thermal cycling environment to assess the reliability of an electronic device with multiple failure modes. First, two typical failure modes of the electronic devices in the thermal environment are analyzed. It is concluded that the reliability of a complicated electronic device (with both the two typical...
The Direction of Optimal Skin Incisions Derived from Striae Distensae
In an effort to achieve inconspicuous scars, plastic surgeons try to place their incisions in established creases and folds of skin. Although well established in the face and abdomen, these folding lines are often disputable on other parts of the body. Striae distensae always develop perpendicular to lines of tension, and their direction can be used to determine optimal incision lines. The auth...

Public Reporting of Patient Safety Metrics: Ready or Not?
In its 1999 report, the Institute of Medicine estimated that medical error leads to between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths per year. Given that statistic, public reporting of quality and safety metrics is a welcome response that may serve to reduce the rate of adverse events and restore patients’ trust in the health care system. To ensure that any public reporting system fulfills its potential, sev...
Risk of Adverse Outcomes When Plastic Surgery Procedures Are Combined
The ability to study population-level outcomes of outpatient cosmetic procedures has been limited by a lack of longitudinal data. This study aimed to describe the rates of adverse events in patients who underwent an isolated cosmetic surgery procedure compared with those who had a combination of two procedures. Retrospective longitudinal analysis was performed of the 2005 to 2010 California Off...
Assessment of Patient Health Literacy: A National Survey of Plastic Surgeons
Health literacy affects patient participation, compliance, and outcomes. Nearly half of American adults have inadequate functional health literacy. Identification and accommodation of patients with low literacy is an important goal of the American Medical Association, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Healthy People 2020 initiative. This study aims to assess plastic surgeon...
Evidence-Based Medicine: Wound Closure
Learning : After reading this article, the participant should be able to: Describe various wound closure techniques available to the modern plastic surgeon, including the indications and contraindications of each. 2. Explain the fundamental concepts of wound healing as it relates to reconstruction. 3. Understand the role of commonly used reconstructive adjuncts such as negative-pressure wound t...