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Differential increases of specific FMR1 mRNA isoforms in premutation carriers
Over 40% of male and ~16% of female carriers of a premutation FMR1 allele (55–200 CGG repeats) will develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder, while about 20% of female carriers will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency. Marked elevation in FMR1 mRNA transcript levels has been observed with premutation alleles, and...


Hybrid extragradient method for hierarchical variational inequalities
In this paper, we consider a hierarchical variational inequality problem (HVIP) defined over a common set of solutions of finitely many generalized mixed equilibrium problems, finitely many variational inclusions, a general system of variational inequalities, and the fixed point problem of a strictly pseudocontractive mapping. By combining Korpelevich’s extragradient method, the viscosity app...
Interactions between reactive nitrogen and the Canadian landscape: A budget approach
The movement of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic activities to natural ecosystems has been described as one of the most serious environmental threats facing modern society [Rockstrom et al., 2009]. One of the approaches for tracking this movement is the use of budgets that quantify fluxes [Leip et al., 2011a]. We constructed an Nr budget for Canada using measured and modeled val...


The “Myth” and Mystery of US History on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: The 1947 “United States Suggestions for Articles to be Incorporated in an International Bill of Rights
Many scholars writing on international human rights law have long contended, for very different reasons, that economic, social, and cultural rights (ESC rights) were only included in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) because “Third World countries … insisted on, and achieved in collaboration with socialist countries at the time, recognition of individual economic and soc...
Russian NGOs and the European Court of Human Rights: A Spectrum of Approaches to Litigation
Much recent attention has been devoted to the increasing burden that cases originating from Russia are creating for the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Until 2014, Russia was the largest source country for applications to the ECtHR; in 2014, it fell to third place behind Ukraine and Italy. Despite new procedural rules that reduced Russian pending cases dramatically from a high of over 4...


Truth Delayed: Accounting for Human Rights Violations in Guatemala and Spain
“No peace without accounting for the past” became the rallying cry that spawned over thirty truth commissions1 in the late twentieth century. Since the emergence in the 1980s of the phenomena of truth commissions and truth reports, many scholars, human rights activists, and politicians have argued that a country emerging from a violent past must account for that past: it must engage in some...
The Global Ethics of Helping and Harming
Within the burgeoning field of international political philosophy, a consensus has by now been reached on a handful of fundamental questions. One of those questions is whether the scope of our moral concern extends beyond our borders.1 Although there might be general agreement that an affluent state has some duty of humanitarian aid regarding the distant needy, the contours of theories in suppo...

Toward Effective Intervention for Haiti’s Former Child Slaves
One of the most widespread forms of child slavery worldwide is domestic slavery.1 Child domestic slavery exists in various forms depending on the cultural context in which it arises, and is driven by common “push” and “pull” factors. “Push” factors include social and economic disparities, social exclusion, lack of educational access and the illusion of opportunity for education and ...
Cultural Diversity, Legal Pluralism, and Human Rights from an Indigenous Perspective: The Approach by the Colombian Constitutional Court and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
The main objective of this article is to analyze the evolution of human rights from when they first appeared during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe, and to explore how the exclusion and invisibility of indigenous peoples has been a constant throughout. In recent decades, however, the so-called indigenous emergence has radically transformed this landscape. In this new and evolving...

The Right to Minority Language Instruction in Schools: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multinational China
Alexis de Tocqueville once said: “The tie of language is, perhaps, the strongest and most durable that can unite mankind.”1 This quote is directly applicable to understanding the essential role that language can actually play. In a multinational country like China, an ethnic group’s traditions, culture, and sense of community are heavily intertwined with its language; in other words, the ...
Safeguarding the Universal Acceptance of Human Rights Through the Receptor Approach
The debate on the implementation of human rights is still dominated by a supposed opposition between human rights and culture in many parts of the world.1 On the one end are those who believe that human rights ought to be applied uniformly, regardless of national or local context. They see culture as potentially undermining human rights and therefore try to downplay its role:2 they stress that ...

Words of Violence: “Fear Speech,” or How Violent Conflict Escalation Relates to the Freedom of Expression
During the ethnic violence following the 2008 elections in Kenya, radio broadcasts called for the “people of the milk”—the Kalenjin tribe—to “take out the weeds in our midst”—the rival Kikuyus. Kikuyu radio stations in turn warned of the “animals from the West,” meaning tribes from Western Kenya.1 Such words can be dangerous in situations of forced displacement and violence wh...
Acculturation, Gender, and Mental Health of Southeast Asian Immigrant Youth in Canada
The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective facto...
Employing a Community Based Participatory Research Approach to Bear Witness: Psycho–Social Impact of the 2010 Earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA
We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haiti...
Detecting Depression in Pregnancy: Validation of EPDS in British Pakistani Mothers
Recent reports suggest that antenatal depression is as prevalent as postnatal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used tool to detect postnatal depression, which can also detect depression during the antenatal period. Mothers of Pakistani origin have the highest birth rate in the UK. The validity of EPDS has not been assessed in this group. A prospecti...