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The poor are twice cursed: wealth inequality and inefficient credit market
This paper investigates the role of unobservable wealth differences on credit market equilibrium, given there is also asymmetric information concerning effort preferences and choices. In equilibrium, poor but able entrepreneurs may subsidise the rich and incompetent or be excluded. As a result, investment may exceed or fall short of the optimal level. Low inequality may deliver conditions for p...


Morphological and chemical characterization of mineral concretions in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta cygnea (Unionidae)
The freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea is commonly used as a model organism for biomineralization studies, its peculiar morphofunctional properties also make it an excellent environmental biomonitor. The first detailed on the calcareous concretions from gill and mantle tissue, as well as fluids of the freshwater bivalve A. cygnea, supported by histological, scanning, spectrometry, and spectrosco...
Gene Polymorphisms of IL-10 and MxA in Responders and Non-responders to Interferon Therapy in HCV Egyptian Patients Genotype 4
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with about 170 million people infected worldwide. The standard regimen for treatment of HCV consists of a combination of pegylated interferon with ribavirin. Failure of interferon-α treatment in patients with chronic HCV infection remains a challenging obstacle. Both viral and host environmental factors have been implicated in ...


Expression of Treg Subsets on Intestinal T Cell Immunity and Endotoxin Translocation in Porcine Sepsis After Severe Burns
In the present study, the changes of the regulatory T cells (Treg) expression, endotoxin translocation, and the relationships in intestinal lymph nodes were investigated in porcine sepsis induced by severe burns. Flow cytometry, western blot, and Tachypleus amebocyte lysate were applied to study after the burn injury model was built. We found that the upregulated Treg expression was negatively ...
The effect of tooth age on color adjustment potential of resin composite restorations
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tooth age on color adjustment potential of resin composite restorations in human teeth. Twenty extracted human premolars with an A2 shade, extracted for orthodontic reasons from younger patients (20-28 yrs) (younger teeth) and periodontal reasons from older patients (45-69 yrs) (older teeth), were used in this study. Cylindrical shaped ...


The course of prosthodontic patients’ oral health-related quality of life over a period of two years
Treatment effects should be large and long-lasting. The aim of this study was to describe for patients treated with fixed dental prostheses (FDP), removable dental prostheses (RDP), and complete dentures (CD) how they perceived their oral health over a period of two years using the concept oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this prospective clinical study, a consecutive sample of ...
Resonance Raman spectroscopic study of shape-induced phase transition in CdSe nanoclusters
We report an observation of shape-induced phase transition from wurtzite to zinc blende phase of encapsulated CdSe nanoclusters in mesoporous silica. Presence of both the phases is also observed in the as-grown sample before encapsulation. Role of interfacial energy in the energetic mesopores, as the possible origin of phase transition, is thus ruled out, as the samples are encapsulated subsequ...

Micro-Raman spectroscopy and ancient ceramics: applications and problems
Micro-Raman spectroscopy is applied for the study of two classes of ancient ceramic artefacts showing different features and technological background, i.e. the fine-grain Black Gloss Ware from Motya (Sicily, Italy) and the coarse-grain pottery from Khirbet al-Batrawy (Jordan). The characterization of the mineralogical composition of these ceramics allows exploring the firing conditions and the ...
Raman spectroscopic investigations on transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) at high pressures and low temperature
Transition-metal dichalcogenides have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy both being off-resonance and in resonance. The first-order Raman spectra of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 single crystal synthesized by vapor transport technique have been studied as a function of hydrostatic pressure (0–20 GPa) and temperature (80–300 K). Isobaric and isothermal mode-Grüneisen parameters have...

A 2D channel-clogging biofilm model
We present a model of biofilm growth in a long channel where the biomass is assumed to have the rheology of a viscous polymer solution. We examine the competition between growth and erosion-like surface detachment due to the flow. A particular focus of our investigation is the effect of the biofilm growth on the fluid flow in the pores, and the issue of whether biomass can grow sufficiently to ...
Democracy, Financial Openness, and Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Heterogeneity Across Existing Emission Levels
The determinants of CO2 emissions have attracted many researchers over the past few decades. Most of studies, however, ignore the possibility that effect of independent variables on CO2 emissions could vary throughout the CO2 emission distribution. We address this issue by applying quantile regression methods. We examine whether greater democracy and more financial openness consistently reduce ...

Growth, Growth Accelerations, and the Poor: Lessons from Indonesia
We study the impact of growth and growth accelerations on poverty and inequality in Indonesia using a new panel dataset covering 26 provinces over the period 1977–2010. This dataset allows us to distinguish between mining and non-mining in Indonesia. Growth in non-mining significantly reduces poverty and inequality. In contrast, overall growth and growth in mining appears to have no effect on...
Structural analysis of the right-lateral strike-slip Qingchuan fault, northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan thrust belt, central China
The eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is marked by the Longmen Shan thrust belt (LSTB), which is dominated by thrust faults and thrust-related fold structures that is home to the 2008 Mw 7.9 thrusting-type Wenchuan earthquake. Although previous works demonstrated that the seismogenic fault for the earthquake changed coseismic slip sense from thrust-dominated slip in the central and southeas...
Pilot Investigation of the Association Between Serum Stress Neuropeptide Levels and Lymphocyte Expression of Fas and Fas Ligand in Critical Illness
In critical illness, apoptotic loss of immunocytes is associated with immunosuppression. To explore expression of Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) on B and T cells from critically ill patients without sepsis compared to matched controls and associations with disease severity and neuropeptide Y (NPY), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and prolactin (PRL) levels. Repeated-measures correlational ...
Psychological Strains, Salivary Biomarkers, and Risks for Coronary Heart Disease Among Hurricane Survivors
To examine the associations of psychological strains, salivary biomarkers, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risks in hurricane survivors 2 years after Hurricane Ike in the United States. Hurricane survivors often suffer from long-lasting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other forms of psychological strain related to surviving a natural disaster and dealing with its aftermath. Psychologi...