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Can the presence of foreign investment affect the capital structure of domestic firms?
Using a simple theoretical model, this paper argues that an increase in foreign presence, which refers to the level of foreign investment in a given domestic firm, can affect the leverage of domestic firms. We apply the model to explore the link between foreign presence and leverage with firm-level panel data from China. The empirical estimation, using Instrumental Variable Tobit regression, re...


Do recycled spectacles meet the refractive needs of a developing country?
The aim was to compare the power of spectacles donated to a recycled spectacle program to the custom-made spectacle refractive prescriptions dispensed in a developing country. Two hundred consecutive prescriptions were audited in an optical dispensary in Timor-Leste, a developing nation. These refractions were compared against measurements of 2,075 wearable donated spectacles. We determined how...
What do triple-frequency radar signatures reveal about aggregate snowflakes?
A large dataset of volume-element models of aggregate snowflakes was created, building the snowflakes from various models of ice crystals found in the atmosphere: dendrites, needles, plates and bullet rosettes, as well as spheroidal crystals for comparison. Several different sizes for the constituent crystals were also used. The radar backscattering cross sections of the snowflakes were compute...


Tomographic and spectral views on the lifecycle of polar mesospheric clouds from Odin/OSIRIS
Vertical and horizontal structures of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) have been recovered by tomographic retrieval from the OSIRIS instrument aboard the Odin satellite. The tomographic algorithm has been used to return local scattering coefficients at seven wavelengths in the ultraviolet. This spectral information is used to retrieve PMC particle sizes, number density and ice mass density. While...
Extended-range high-resolution dynamical downscaling over a continental-scale spatial domain with atmospheric and surface nudging
Extended-range high-resolution mesoscale simulations with limited-area atmospheric models when applied to downscale regional analysis fields over large spatial domains can provide valuable information for many applications including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. Long-term simulations over a continental-scale spatial domain, however, require mechanisms to control the large-sca...


The non-convective/convective structural transition in stochastic scaling of atmospheric fields
High-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations are able to reproduce observed stochastic scale-invariant behavior of atmospheric wind and water fields down to the effective model resolution, which is shown to be a process-dependent transient property that varies with the underlying dynamics. The effective resolution gain in dynamical downscaling of convective regimes is substantially ...
Usefulness of bovine and porcine IVM/IVF models for reproductive toxicology
Women presenting fertility problems are often helped by Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs. However, in many cases the etiology of the in/subfertility remains unknown even after treatment. Although several aspects should be considered when assisting a woman with problems to conceive, a survey on the patients' exposure to contaminants would help...

Analysis and Control of Pre-extinction Dynamics in Stochastic Populations
We consider a stochastic population model, where the intrinsic or demographic noise causes cycling between states before the population eventually goes extinct. A master equation approach coupled with a (Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin) WKB approximation is used to construct the optimal path to extinction. In addition, a probabilistic argument is used to understand the pre-extinction dynamics and...
Right Hemicolectomy in a Severely Anemic Jehovah's Witness Patient With an Extremely Low Preoperative Hemoglobin Level and the Decision to Operate
Severe anemia is associated with high mortality, and patients with this condition are typically treated with packed blood red cells. Patients of Jehovah's Witness faith, however, do not accept blood transfusion therapy. The authors report the case of a Jehovah's Witness patient who presented with lower gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to Clostridium difficile colitis. Because the patient ref...

Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Manual Medicine Research
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is commonly used in combination with reactivity tests to noninvasively evaluate skin sympathetic nerve activity and skin microvascular function. In manual medicine research, LDF has been used as a marker for global peripheral sympathetic nervous system function, but these results should be considered with caution because skin sympathetic nerve activity physiology i...
Diagnosis and Management of Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar fasciitis, a chronic degenerative process that causes medial plantar heel pain, is responsible for approximately 1 million physician visits each year. Individuals with plantar fasciitis experience pain that is most intense during their first few steps of the day or after prolonged standing. The authors provide an overview of the diagnosis and management of a common problem encountered i...

Effect of Triage-Based Use of the Ottawa Foot and Ankle Rules on the Number of Orders for Radiographic Imaging
Reducing unnecessary testing lessens the cost burden of medical care, but decreasing use depends on consistently following evidence-based clinical decision rules. The Ottawa foot and ankle rules (OFARs) are validated, longstanding evidence-based guidelines to predict fractures. Frequently, radiography is automatically ordered for acute ankle injuries despite findings from OFARs suggesting no fr...
SharkFin : Spatio-temporal mining of software adoption and penetration
How does malware propagate? Does it form spikes over time? Does it resemble the propagation pattern of benign files, such as software patches? Does it spread uniformly over countries? How long does it take for a URL that distributes malware to be detected and shut down? In this work, we answer these questions by analyzing patterns from 22 million malicious (and benign) files, found on 1.6 milli...
Cuts in Bayesian graphical models
The cut function defined by the OpenBUGS software is described as a “valve” that prevents feedback in Bayesian graphical models. It is shown that the MCMC algorithm applied by OpenBUGS in the presence of a cut function does not converge to a well-defined limiting distribution. However, it may be improved by using tempered transitions. The cut algorithm is compared with multiple imputation a...
Trans-1,2-Cyclohexanedisulfonic Acid: An Optically Active Linker for Coordination Polymers
Racemic 1,2-cyclohexanedisulfonic acid was prepared from cyclohexene oxide via the cyclic trithiocarbonate and isolated as its barium salt. Optical resolution was achieved by crystallization with (–)-(R,R)-1,2-cyclohexane diamine; the absolute configuration was established by X-ray crystallography of this salt, [C6H10(NH3)2][C6H10(SO3)2]. Solid-state structures were investigated of the racemi...