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The effect of surface treatment and topography on corrosion behavior of EN 1.4404 stainless steel
Corrosion properties of EN 1.4404 (316L) stainless steel with different applied surface treatment, were studied in NaCl solution using cyclic polarization. Observed properties were related to the specific topography of each surface by scanning electron microcopy and cross-section analysis. Average roughness was measured to evaluate the usability for this parameter to be used in assessment of ...


Inclined stress corrosion cracks in gas pipeline steels: morphology and implications
A systematic morphological survey was carried out on 120 stress corrosion cracks (SCC) from an ex service X65 Australian gas pipeline. Out of these cracks, 81% showed a tendency to grow into the material away from the perpendicular. The inclined crack path was suggested to be due to anisotropic residual stress/strains present in the material introduced during pipe manufacturing processes. The o...
Oxidation behavior of chromium-rich Fe-based alloys containing HfC carbides at 1100 °C
Three HfC-containing iron-based alloys were successfully elaborated by foundry. The alloys, all containing 27 wt% Cr, 0.25 or 0.50 wt% C and 4 to 6 wt% Hf, are composed of a dendritic matrix and of HfC carbides of two types: pre-eutectic blocky carbides and interdendritic script-like HfC carbides. These alloys were subjected to thermogravimetry tests in air at 1100 °C for 46 h. The...


Effects of surface states on the oxidation behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high temperature pressurized water
Nuclear grade 316LN stainless steel with different surface states are prepared: electropolished and ground to 240 grit. Surface topography, surface Volta potential distribution, and nanohardness distribution on cross-sectional surface are investigated, respectively. Oxide films on the ground and electropolished samples after immersion in high temperature pressurized (HTP) water for 0.1, 168, ...
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in chloride-rich environments. Questions to be answered
This paper describes the peculiarities of carbon steel corrosion in very severe marine atmospheres and points out a number of uncertainties that still need to be explained, such as the following: (a) Data on the evolution of carbon steel corrosion (C) with exposure time (t) obeys the power function C = Atn. The variables upon which n depends are not fully known, though the salinity of the a...


Fusing Landsat and SAR time series to detect deforestation in the tropics
Fusion of optical and SAR time series imagery has the potential to improve forest monitoring in tropical regions, where cloud cover limits optical satellite time series observations. We present a novel pixel-based Multi-sensor Time-series correlation and Fusion approach (MulTiFuse) that exploits the full observation density of optical and SAR time series. We model the relationship of two overla...
Maternal Patterns of Postpartum Alcohol Consumption by Age: A Longitudinal Analysis of Adult Urban Mothers
The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child ...

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Factors That Place Adolescents at Risk for Prescription Opioid Misuse
Although considerable research attention is paid to the misuse of controlled medications, a relatively small number of studies focus on prescription opioid misuse (POM) among racial/ethnic minority adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of POM among adolescents in the three largest racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Hispanics, Blacks) and identify demographic and psychosocial fact...
Neighborhood Guided Smoothed Emphasis for Real Adaboost Ensembles
The exceptional capabilities of the much celebrated Real Adaboost ensembles for solving decision and classification problems are universally recognized. These capabilities come from progressively constructing unstable and weak learners that pay more attention to samples that oppose more difficulties to be correctly classified, and linearly combine them in a progressive manner. However, the corr...

A Novel Multiple Kernel Learning Method Based on the Kullback–Leibler Divergence
In this paper we develop a novel multiple kernel learning (MKL) model that is based on the idea of the multiplicative perturbation of data in a new feature space in the framework of uncertain convex programs (UCPs). In the proposed model, we utilize the Kullback–Leibler divergence to measure the difference between the estimated kernel weights and ideal kernel weights. Instead of directly hand...
Effects can precede their cause in the sense of agency
The sense of agency, i.e., the feeling that one's action is the cause of an external sensory event, involves causal inference based on the predicted sensory outcome of a motor act. Here, we investigated whether this inference process faithfully implements the physical principle that a cause (motor act) temporally precedes its effect (external sensory feedback). To this end, we presented partici...

List constituency and orthographic and phonological processing: A shift to high familiarity words from low familiarity words
Two lexical decision experiments build on established patterns of laterality and hemispheric interaction to test whether the presence of low familiarity words dynamically affects the use of an orthographic or phonological strategy for high familiarity words; and, if so, whether the hemispheres are similarly flexible in adapting to the constituency change. Experiment 1 restricted word strings to...
Weak language lateralization affects both verbal and spatial skills: An fMRI study in 297 subjects
The present study reappraised the relationship between hemispheric specialization strength and cognitive skills in a sample of 297 individuals including 153 left-handers. It additionally assessed the interaction with manual laterality factors, such as handedness, asymmetry of hand motor skills, and familial sinistrality. A Hemispheric Functional Lateralization Index (HFLI) for language was deri...
Prefrontal and parietal activity is modulated by the rule complexity of inductive reasoning and can be predicted by a cognitive model
In neuroimaging studies, increased task complexity can lead to increased activation in task-specific regions or to activation of additional regions. How the brain adapts to increased rule complexity during inductive reasoning remains unclear. In the current study, three types of problems were created: simple rule induction (i.e., SI, with rule complexity of 1), complex rule induction (i.e., CI,...
Enhancing treatment effects by combining continuous theta burst stimulation with smooth pursuit training
Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) represents a promising approach in the treatment of neglect syndrome. However, it is not known whether cTBS in conjunction with another technique may enhance the therapeutic effects. In the present sham-controlled study, we aimed to combine cTBS with smooth pursuit training (SPT), another method known to effectively improve neglect symptoms, and to eval...